What are nirvana and moksha
Buddhism and Hinduism in comparison
Buddhism and Hinduism are two religions that come from the same country (India) and use similar spiritual terms. Buddha is a helpful spiritual role model for many people. He embodies the path of calm and meditation. Hinduism stands for lively festivals, many gods and above all for yoga as a relaxation and health technique. The center of both religions is enlightenment. Buddhism and Hinduism agree on many points and disagree on some. It should be noted that there are different directions in Buddhism and Hinduism.
Basics of Buddhism
Buddhism is the fourth largest religion on earth. The Buddhists refer to the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who lived in the 5th century BC. Lived in northern India. A Buddhist takes refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma (his teaching) and the Sangha (the Buddhist community). The goal of Buddhist practice is to attain enlightenment.
"Buddha" (literally "awakened") is an honorary title that refers to the permanent experience of enlightenment ("awakening"). In Buddhism, a Buddha is understood to be a being who has achieved complete enlightenment. A Buddha has achieved nirvana and, according to Buddhist belief, is no longer bound to the cycle of reincarnation (samsara).
The Buddha's teaching is called Dharma. The basis of the Dharma are the four noble truths: 1. Life in the cycle of existence contains suffering. 2. The causes of suffering are attachment to worldly pleasures, rejection of unpleasant situations and ignorance of the deeper meaning of life (inner happiness). 3. When the causes are resolved, the suffering disappears. 4. The way to overcome suffering is the Noble Eightfold Path.
The eightfold path to enlightenment consists of the right insight (essentially living), the right decision (for spiritual practice), the right speech (do not lie, do not hurt others with words), the right action (do not steal, do not kill), the right livelihood (do not harm other beings, do good), the right striving (for enlightenment), the right mindfulness (on the thoughts) and the right concentration (meditation).
The essence of Buddhism can be summarized in Thought work (Mindfulness of the qualities of inner peace, wisdom and love) and meditation. The meditation takes place lying down, sitting, standing and walking. Thoughts are brought to rest by stopping them and dwelling in meditation. The main meditations of the Buddha are the four levels of immersion Thinking, inner calm, inner happiness, ego dissolution / enlightenment. The fourth level of immersion is difficult to achieve for an inexperienced person. It is basically done by grace (by itself). The more comprehensively and persistently a person walks the spiritual path, the sooner he can get into a life in light (nirvana).
Today there are three main schools of Buddhism (Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana) and many sub-forms (for example Amitabha Buddhism and Zen Buddhism). Theravada Buddhism focuses on the original teachings of the Buddha. It is mainly about your own enlightenment. The main goal is to become a saint (arhat) and live in nirvana (oneness).
Mahayana Buddhism is the way of all-embracing love. The main goal is not one's own enlightenment, but the happiness of all beings. A Mahayana Buddhist does not see himself as separate from his fellow beings, but feels himself to be part of the world. He wants to take all beings with him on the way to enlightenment. He wishes a happy world and a happy cosmos.
The ideal in Mahayana is to live as a bodhisattva. A bodhisattva works simultaneously for his own enlightenment and for the enlightenment of all beings. When a Bodhisattva has attained enlightenment, he foregoes the great extinction in Parinirvana after death until he has also saved all of his fellow beings. He basically incarnates more often on earth.
The Vajrayana ("diamond vehicle") is known in the west as Tibetan Buddhism. It is based on the philosophical foundations of Mahayana, but supplements them with a variety of techniques. This includes physical exercises (prostration), visualizations (deity yoga), mantras, spiritual rituals, special meditations, initiations (energy transfers) and working with enlightened masters (guru yoga).
Basics of Hinduism
Hinduism is a religion made up of many individual religions, each with special models (gods) and spiritual techniques. Religious teachers (gurus) are often of great importance for personal belief. Only individual directions go back to a certain founder. Despite all the differences, Hindus of the various schools can largely celebrate and pray together. "Unity in diversity" is an often used self-definition phrase in modern Hinduism.
The most important currents within Hinduism are Vishnuism, Shivaism and Shaktism. Vishnuits believe that their supreme god Vishnu manifests himself in several incarnations (avatars) in the world. Vishnu incarnates in the world above all when the cosmic order (Dharma) is endangered and needs salvation. The classic ten incarnations include Rama and Krishna.
Shivaites consider Shiva to be the highest god. Shiva is considered the god of ascetics who meditates in the Himalayas. Shivaites can be dualists (God and the world are separate), monists (there is only God) in the sense of Shankara or also tantrics (God is male and female) as in the Shivaism of Kashmir. Yoga plays a major role in some currents of Shaivism.
In Shaktism, female deities such as Durga, Lakshmi, Sarasvati, Kali or Devi are regarded as the most important main deities. Devi is considered a Mahadevi (great goddess), who unites all other goddesses. Shaktism emphasizes the role of the mother as an important symbol for God. Like the children from the mother, all beings have arisen from God (the highest cosmic dimension). Worship of the Divine Mother can be a helpful path to enlightenment. You see yourself as a child in the security of the great mother (of the cosmos) and thus develop a sense of unity.
Moksha is the center of Hinduism. It means salvation and is often referred to as enlightenment. Moksha includes liberation from the chain of birth, death (Shira) and rebirth (samsara) and represents the ultimate goal of human life. Even in Hinduism there is an idea of heaven that a person with good karma can reach after death Body can enjoy, but this is only temporary.
Many traditions describe enlightenment as a state of detachment from 'I' and from attachment to the world. Man gets into Sat-Chit-Ananda. Sat means to live in a state of being (in the attachmentless rest). Chit refers to the consciousness and is mostly understood in the sense of a pure impersonal consciousness (unity consciousness, God consciousness). Ananda is the bliss of enlightenment. Whoever practices and realizes the attachment-free being and the unity consciousness (cosmic consciousness), in whom the inner happiness (the serene serenity of the enlightened ones) arises by itself (through grace). The person who has achieved complete salvation during life is called Jivan Mukta (liberated soul).
The traditions of Hinduism recommend three, sometimes four, different ways of attaining Moksha: Bhakti-Yoga (the way of love of God), Jnana Yoga (the way of knowledge) and Karma-Yoga (the way of selfless deed). The fourth way is Raja Yoga. Raja Yoga (royal yoga) is the path of thought work (positive thinking) and meditation.
A preliminary stage to Raja Yoga is Hatha Yoga, the path of physical exercises (asanas). First a yogi trains his body and opens his energy channels (chakras). This gives him the power (energy) to remain in meditation for a longer period of time and to reach higher levels of inner happiness. When the body and mind are sufficiently purified through spiritual exercises (yoga, visualizations, mantras, breathing techniques), Kundalini energy (inner happiness) awakens and the yogi can concentrate on higher levels of meditation (Kundalini yoga, deity yoga , higher breathing techniques, mudras, abiding in enlightenment). These exercises are described in detail in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the basic work of Hatha Yoga.
Dharma is a central term in both Hinduism and Buddhism. Dharma in Hinduism includes law, justice and custom, ethical and religious obligations. Hindus see observance of the Dharma not only as a prerequisite for social well-being, but also for good personal development. For them, future karma depends on the fulfillment of the Dharma.
The ideal of the four stages of life (Ashrama) described in the scriptures of Hinduism divides life into four phases: Brahmacharin (student), Grihastha (housekeeper), Vanaprastha (who goes into the forest solitude) and Samnyasin (who gives up the world). The student's duty is to study and provide social services. As a “housekeeper” one should marry, have children, look after the family, give to the needy, serve the social and political needs of the community. One should only go into the "forest solitude" when the family duties have been fulfilled. Then one can get rid of material things. This then results in the last phase of giving up the world and living enlightened in Brahman (in Sat-Chit-Ananda).
In Buddhism, Dharma includes the teaching of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path to Enlightenment. In Mahayana and Vajrayana, the term refers not only to the teachings of the Buddha but also to the teachings of the great Bodhisattvas and all masters who have achieved enlightenment in the succession of the Buddha.
The deeper meaning of life, according to both Buddhism and Hinduism, lies in enlightenment. The way to get there is through the proper practice of the Dharma. Buddhism is centered on life as a monk or nun. But it is also possible as a lay follower (worldly living person) to be a Buddhist. In Hinduism, the connection between life and spirituality is mostly emphasized. But there is also life in an ashram or as a secluded yogi.
Karma describes a spiritual concept according to which every action - physical as well as mental - inevitably has a consequence. This does not necessarily have to take effect in the current life, but can possibly only manifest itself in one of the next lives. The teaching of karma is closely connected with the belief in samsara, the cycle of rebirths, and in the validity of the cause-and-effect principle on a spiritual level over several lifetimes.
There are several views on the question of how the fruits of deeds are realized: (1) the soul leaves the body after death and is reborn in a new body conditioned by karma. (2) The retribution takes place partly in the hereafter, partly in the new existence. (3) Good karma can bring about temporary bliss in "heaven", bad karma, on the other hand, a stay in "hell", but not as a final state, but, for example, alternating with an animal birth. All good works can have religious merit (punya) that reduce karma.
A contrary tendency in Hinduism emphasizes "inactivity" (nivritti). It is particularly represented by the yogis and ascetics. Your way is to withdraw from the world in order to break all attachments and to come into a blissful being. Even good deeds can lead to attachment to other people or to success. That is why Krishna taught the way of doing attachmentlessly in the Bhagavad Gita. A person does good (Arjuna fights for the good) but is not attached to the result of his actions. He wins or loses with equanimity. This is how one grows to enlightenment through positive deeds. The Bhagavad Gita also accepts the path of the yogi, who dissolves his attachments (his karma) through a life in peace.
As an ascetic, Buddha preferred the way of doing nothing (living as a yogi / monk). But he also recommended the way of doing. He said: "To refrain from all evil, to do what is good and to purify one's own mind, that is the teaching of the Buddha. Whoever torments other beings has no luck in the next life. The miserly do not rise to the world of gods. Whoever does good , experiences good things in the hereafter and also in the next life. But the path to enlightenment is better than the birth in the kingdom of gods. The happy Buddhas are also worshiped by the gods. " 
Mahayana Buddhism even gives positive action priority over enlightened doing nothing, as long as there is still suffering in the world and not all beings are enlightened. Out of this developed socially engaged Buddhism (Thich Nhat Hanh), for which social action is an important part of spiritual practice. The Dalai Lama also puts the happiness of all beings at the center of his teaching and leads an active life. The Dalai Lama and Thich Nhat Hanh each practice a middle way in their own way. You act out of calm for a happy world. You live in balance between meditation and doing good.
The term God denotes a higher principle in the cosmos. This principle cannot be fully grasped with the normal dualistic mind. God is a mystery that one grasps and experiences in enlightenment. There is a personal and an abstract concept of God in religions. Some enlightened ones (mystics) describe God more as a person and some as a higher dimension in the cosmos. In Hinduism, the abstract concept of God dominates and is called Brahman. In Buddhism, the highest principle is not explicitly named, because "Dhamma" (Pali) or "Dharma" (Sanskrit) stands for "eternal truth" as well as for the Buddhist teaching, while "Nirvana" stands for a redeemed consciousness or being - State that can be understood both metaphysically abstractly as well as concretely for the "here and now". In order to recognize similarities and differences between Buddhism and Hinduism, the terms must be carefully analyzed.
Nirvana is the Buddhist goal of salvation. It is achieved through enlightenment (Bodhi), a redeeming knowledge beyond the dimensional limitation and the desires of ordinary consciousness and, as a result, a redemption of the individual being, the exit from samsara, the cycle of suffering and rebirths (reincarnation). Nirvana is also referred to as "extinction" (literally "to blow away") and, in addition to the knowledge of allness and the undivided participation in experience, refers to the extinction of ego-consciousness. The enlightened one no longer perceives himself as a separate entity from others but lives with his consciousness in a higher dimension of unity (abundance, happiness), allness (comprehensive understanding and dissolution of discriminating consciousness) as well as emptiness (of thought manifestations).
Nirvana is not something that only occurs with death, but can be achieved in life (state of the arhat, saint). It is synonymous with a life of calm and happiness: "A Buddha lives meekly in a world of struggle. He dwells without addiction in a world of addictions. He rests without suffering in a world of suffering. Nirvana is the highest happiness. Good is to meet an enlightened one. His light illuminates the world. His wisdom shows the way to happiness. "
In Mahayana Buddhism, similar to Christianity and Hinduism, a personal concept of God is used. Buddha is seen as the personification of nirvana. As an enlightened being, he has special spiritual powers and can thus help other beings. Buddha statues and images therefore serve as objects of worship and can be worshiped. In Buddhism, mantras are mostly spoken for this purpose.
In Hindu philosophy, Brahman denotes an immutable and transcendent reality from which all matter arises. Brahman is the immortal that is still above the gods. All gods in Hinduism are beings that have emerged from the original substance Brahman. At his center God is "Brahman", the highest dimension in the cosmos.
Derived from the root brh, to grow, to expand, Brahman means the vastness, the infinite, the absolute. Brahman is an impersonal concept of the divine that has no creator and no ruler, a primordial ground of being, a higher dimension, without beginning and without end. Brahman is not definable in space and time.
Although it has no attributes, it is described and experienced as Sat-Chit-Ananda. Sat-Chit-Ananda is a Hindu term for a state of consciousness that one attains through enlightenment. An enlightened one lives in calm, in unity consciousness (cosmic consciousness) and in happiness.Sat refers to being without attachment. The ego-consciousness disappears and the person arrives in the unity consciousness (chit). From the connection of being with the unity consciousness the inner happiness (ananda) arises by itself (by grace).
Swami Sivananda wrote about Brahman: "He who has achieved Brahman becomes silent. Absolute happiness is the highest reality. Step by step rise to the transcendent experience, where all names and forms disappear and only joy exists in the self. This is divine grace the greatest treasure in life. Ignorance persists as long as there is ego thinking. I thinking is great confusion. God is the source of all happiness. All beings are in him. God is pure spirit. God is the way and the goal. Remember this that God is always with you, in you and around you. You will thereby have great strength, inner peace and inner happiness. "
The difference between Buddhism and Hinduism in terms of the ultimate goal is that the term nirvana the emptiness (the ego-dissolution) and the concept Brahman emphasizes the unity (the unity consciousness, the abundance). In enlightenment, both perceptions exist at the same time. It's two sides of the same coin. This already results from the Buddha's statements about enlightenment. The enlightened Hindu master Swami Sivananda said the same thing. Some people need to focus on one side of the coin and some on the other side of the coin in order to enter the state of enlightenment.
Atman is a term from Indian philosophy. It denotes the individual self and is often translated as soul. According to Hindu ideas, the human being is in his innermost being an immortal soul (Atman), which reincarnates after the death of the body.
The Buddhist teaching of Anatman (Anatta) explains the absence of a permanent and unchangeable self, a fixed essence or an unchanging soul. What is normally considered to be the "self" is thereafter just a collection of constantly changing, physical and psychological components.
According to Buddhism, if there is no fixed self, no enduring essence of a person, then what is being reborn? It is the karmic impulse (the thought structures) that establishes the connection between the individual lives. The self is like a burning candle. As soon as it goes out, a new candle is lit on the flame. The flame (the character) remains, the candle (the person) is a new one.
There is not much difference between the Hindu and Buddhist theory of the soul when one sees the soul as a vibrational field of thoughts and feelings. Hinduism emphasizes the continuity of the soul and Buddhism the independence of the individual incarnations. Both are true at the same time. There is continuity combined with independence. The character of a person is retained, but each incarnation feels like its own self.
A soul can develop further. She can practice positive qualities, meditate and thus change her being up to enlightenment. Then she experiences herself as not-self (Anatman, Anatta). She dissolves her I-consciousness and recognizes herself as part of the cosmos (cosmic consciousness). She sees herself in all appearances of the universe. She lives as pure consciousness in the peace and happiness of nirvana (in God). A soul stabilizes its inner happiness (enlightenment) when it lives in peace, loves all beings, helps everyone on the path of happiness and gives itself what it needs for itself.
The big question is what happens to a Buddha (fully enlightened being) after death. Buddha Shakyamuni (Siddhartha Gautama) viewed this question as speculative and did not answer it.  When all consciousness vibrations (thought impulses) come to rest, the soul (consciousness flame) would have to dissolve into the great ocean of consciousness of the highest cosmic dimension (if the idea is correct that the cosmos consists of consciousness in the center). Only the teachings of a Buddha, his symbolic example and his followers (Sangha) remain on earth.
As an enlightened Hindu, Swami Sivananda answered the question with a prayer: "May my soul endure forever to help the beings in the cosmos." On the other hand, he also taught the goal of nirvana.  In his view, an enlightened soul can become completely one with Brahman (God, the ocean of consciousness) and thus, from a Buddhist point of view, dissolve. A Hindu would say that the enlightened soul now continues to exist forever as the original soul (Brahman). However, an enlightened person can make the decision not to fully enter into the highest being (into the highest happiness), but either to continue to exist in the hereafter out of love for his fellow beings or even to incarnate again on earth (Nitya Siddha). A Mahayana Buddhist has already made this decision. As long as there are suffering beings, he will continue to live as a helper (bodhisattva).
Role models 
Buddhism and Hinduism differ in their spiritual model. The main spiritual role model of all Buddhists is Buddha. Again, there are very diverse ideas about the Buddha among Buddhists. Buddha is seen as a historical person and as a transcendent principle, the name for perfect enlightenment. And then in Mahayana Buddhism there are still many bodhisattvas and some gods that were adopted from Hinduism (Tara, Sarasvati, Ganesha). Nevertheless, the term Buddha remains a spiritual symbol that unites all Buddhists and separates Buddhism from other religions.
Buddha saw himself neither as a god nor as a messenger of the teaching of a god. He made it clear that he did not receive the teaching, Dhamma (Pali) or Dharma (Sanskrit), on the basis of divine revelation, but rather gained an understanding of the nature of his own mind and the nature of all things through his own meditative vision (contemplation).  This knowledge is accessible to everyone who follows his teaching and methodology. The teaching he pointed out was not to be dogmatically followed. On the contrary, he warned against blind faith in authority and emphasized human responsibility.
Many different models are worshiped in Hinduism. Brahman is the common goal, but from the absolute reality (the light, God, the higher dimension of consciousness in the cosmos) many deities and enlightened masters manifest themselves. These deities are seen as symbolic models for enlightenment and also as real beings that one can worship. The deities can incarnate as real persons on earth (avatar). The god of love, Vishnu, incarnates ten times on earth to save the world and restore balance between the good and the bad. In his seventh incarnation he came as Rama and in his eighth incarnation as Krishna. Many Indian gurus like Sathya Sai Baba, Mata Amritanandamayi and Mother Meera see themselves as avatars.
Buddha is seen as the ninth avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism. In this one can see the attempt to suck up Buddhism through Hinduism. But it can also be interpreted positively as a gesture of tolerance. Conversely, the gods of Hinduism were also adopted by Mahayana Buddhism, and the bodhisattvas (enlightened beings of all-embracing love) created competition for the incarnations of Vishnu.
Some Hindus believe that Buddhism is just a reformation of Hinduism. That the Buddha only wanted to reform some of the grievances within Hinduism. Buddha himself supports this view with the words: "I only teach what all the wise say." Above all, he saw the unity of religions and the knowledge of all enlightened ones.
Caste system 
An important difference between Hinduism and Buddhism is the caste system. Buddhism rejects the division of people into castes. For him, all people are the same because they all have the potential for enlightenment. This view is also held by many Hindu yoga masters (Patanjali / Yogasutra, Amritanandamayi, Swami Sivananda, Mother Meera). In modern yoga one assumes the equality of all people. Caste discrimination is prohibited in the Indian Constitution. In the social reality in India, however, it continues to play a major role. Many Hindus have converted to Buddhism because of caste discrimination.
The spiritual techniques of Buddha and of the yoga modes Patanjali (Yoga Sutra, Raja Yoga) are similar. Buddha taught the eightfold path that begins with thought work (right thinking, right behavior) and ends with right immersion. Patanjali (Hinduism) taught the eightfold yoga path (Ashtanga Yoga) beginning with the correct behavior (Yama and Niyama) and finally meditation.
The path to enlightenment essentially consists of consistent thought work (practicing inner peace, comprehensive love, wisdom, self-discipline and inner happiness) and regular meditation. Then the spirit comes to rest, the person rests in his true nature (in God) and inner happiness awakens. Buddha taught the way of the four levels of immersion. This is how you get into nirvana. Patanjali explained that yoga at the center is calming the mind (yoga sutra).
With Patanjali there is the three step of concentration, meditation and samadhi. First the yogi consciously quiets his thoughts through concentration. Then he just observes the thoughts, lets them flow freely and continues to calm itself down over time. At some point there is an inner turnaround and the yogi is in happiness. He rests in Brahman, in Sat-Chit-Ananda (Being-Unity-Consciousness-Bliss).
Vipassana and Zazen are the most popular Buddhist meditation forms in the West. Both schools teach non-judgmental and deliberate awareness in the here and now without being attached to thoughts, sensations or feelings. The goal of meditation is the transcendent spiritual experience, which is described as the dissolution of duality. In samatha meditation, also called calmness meditation, the practitioner focuses on an object such as breath, an image, a thought or a mantra. The Samatha meditation then mostly leads to the Vipassana meditation, in which the thoughts can come and go as they want.
Zen meditation is similar to Vipassana meditation. It's just more ritualized. And above all, there is usually a constant alternation between walking and sitting. Walking meditation is a specialty in Buddhism. In Hinduism there are similarly the body exercises in Hatha Yoga and the technique of pilgrimage. Swami Sivananda practiced daily jogging and Swami Vishnu-devananda had regular forest walks.
In the 7th century AD, the Shiva followers Matsyendra and his disciple Goraksha developed the path of Hatha Yoga, which consists of a variety of techniques. There are physical exercises (yoga) and various meditation techniques based on the activation of Kundalini energy through the breath, visualizations and mantras. Today's yoga is a system of diverse methods for awakening the enlightenment energy (happiness energy). He has far exceeded the simple path of enlightenment of concentration (samatha) and meditation (mindfulness) and has switched to a diverse spiritual practice (deity yoga, master yoga, karma yoga, mantra yoga, tantra yoga).
Vajrayana was developed in parallel to Hatha Yoga in Tibet. The Indian yogi and Buddhist Padmasambhava brought the whole variety of yoga techniques to Tibet. In the period that followed, the spiritual system of Tibetan Buddhism was developed from this. For Hinduism, Swami Sivananda has summarized the Indian knowledge of yoga and brought it into a spiritual system. Anandamayi Ma developed the creative hatha yoga and deity yoga, in which the appropriate exercises are found intuitively. Ramakrishna experienced the unity of all religions and practiced exercises from many religions. Today's yoga masters usually teach a diverse practice path with individual differences. In the West, the way of physical exercise (yoga) dominates.
In summary it can be said that in Buddhism there is the rest-oriented path of Vipassana and Zen. There is also the diverse Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana). In Hinduism one finds parallel to this the traditional path of Patanjali (Raja-Yoga) and the diverse exercise path of the more recent times (Hatha-Yoga, Bhakti-Yoga, Karma-Yoga, Tantra-Yoga, Deity-Yoga, Mantra-Yoga).
A great danger on any spiritual path is formal practice, in which one practices empty rituals that do not really advance one spiritually. Buddha turned against this form of spiritual practice. He advised the Brahms to achieve enlightenment (union with Brahma) rather than externally perfect rituals. Without her own enlightenment experience (seeing Brahma face to face), all of her spiritual teachings were just empty talk.
It is helpful to read spiritual books (Jnana Yoga) and get a good spiritual education. Ultimately, according to the prevailing view in Hinduism, one can only avoid the danger of formal practice if one has an enlightened master. Otherwise one always brings all exercise instructions into the personal system of rational dualistic thinking. However, enlightenment consists precisely in transcending the dualistic worldview and arriving at a higher level of consciousness (nirvana, brahman).
Only someone who already knows the spiritual goal can help one. In this respect, it is good that Tibetan Buddhism as well as Hindu yoga (Swami Sivananda, Amritanandamayi, Mother Meera) emphasize the importance of an enlightened master (guru yoga). On the other hand, especially in Hinduism and sometimes also in Tibetan Buddhism, there are gurus who are critical. The Dalai Lama therefore recommends examining every master carefully before setting out with him.  There are many traps on the spiritual path that are best overcome with a clear anchorage in personal truth and wisdom. And with eternal persistence and self-discipline until one has reached the spiritual goal.
Buddha of Tranquility (Zen Buddhism)
Buddha blessing (Mahayana Buddhism)
Buddha of Power (Vajrayana, Tibet)
Budda of love walking (Amitabha)
Brahma (person) in Brahman (God)
Vishnu with his ten incarnations (avatars)
Shiva meditating (self-discipline)
- Amritatma Chaitanya (Editor): Mata Amritanandamayi. Mother of Immortal Bliss. Life and teaching of a young Indian sage of our time. 2nd edition, Ansata-Verlag, Interlaken (Switzerland) 1993, ISBN 3-7157-0121-8.
- Hans-Peter Dürr: In the beginning there was the quantum mind. In: PM Magazin 05/2007.
- Amit Goswami: The conscious universe. How consciousness creates the material world. Lüchow Verlag, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-7831-9032-8.
- Dalai Lama: Dzogchen. The Heart Essence of Great Perfection. Theseus Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89620-171-9.
- Bithika Mukerji: Matri Lila. Shri Anandamayi Ma. Your life - your teaching. Mangalam Verlag S. Schang, Lautersheim 1999, ISBN 3-922-477-05-4.
- Nils Horn: Enlightenment, God and proof of God. Knol article, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-1-4092-9637-9.
- Nyanatiloka Mahathera: Dhammapada. Words of the buddha. Jhana Verlag, Uttenbühl 1995, ISBN 3-931274-01-2.
- Hermann Oldenberg: Speeches of the Buddha. Doctrine, verses, narratives. Herder im Breisgau publishing house 1993, ISBN 3-451-4112-X.
- Padmasambhava: The guide on the way to the truth. Arbor Verlag, Schönau 1991, ISBN 3-924195-12-9.
- Swami Sivananda: Divine knowledge. Mangalam Verlag, S. Schang, Lautersheim 2001, ISBN 3-922477-00-3, page 57 ff (chapter Buddhism).
- Swami Sivananda: Sadhana. A textbook with techniques for spiritual perfection ". Mangalam Verlag, S. Schang, Lautersheim 1998, ISBN 3-92247-07-3.
- Hans Wolfgang Schumann: The great gods of India. Basic features of Hinduism and Buddhism. Eugen Diederichs Verlag, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-424-01332-3.
- ↑ Nyanatiloka Mahathera: Dhammapada, Page 53 ff.
- ↑ Nils Horn: Enlightenment, God and proof of God (Knol article 2009)
- ↑ According to Nyanatiloka Mahathera: Dhammapada, Page 57 ff.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Sadhana ", page 404 f.
- ↑ Nyanatiloka Mahathera: Dhammapada, Page 57 ff.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Sadhana ", page 404 f.
- ^ Hermann Oldenberg: Speeches of the Buddha. Page 163.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Divine knowledge, Page 172.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Sadhana, "p. 348.
- ^ Hermann Oldenberg: Speeches of the Buddha. Page 92.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Divine knowledge, Page 60.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Divine knowledge, Page 57.
- ^ Hermann Oldenberg: Speeches of the Buddha. Page 212 f.
- ^ Hermann Oldenberg: Speeches of the Buddha. Page 366.
- ↑ Hans Wolfgang Schumann: The great gods of India. Page 29 ff.
- ↑ Hans Wolfgang Schumann: The great gods of India. Page 36.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Sadhana, "p. 179.
- ↑ Bithika Mukerji: Matri Lila, Page 61 ff.
- ^ Hermann Oldenberg: Speeches of the Buddha. Page 366 ff.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Divine knowledge, Page 20.
- ↑ Swami Sivananda: Divine knowledge, Page 58.
- ↑ Dalai Lama: Dzogchen. Page 40.
- ↑ Padmasambhava: The guide on the way to the truth, Page 34 ff.
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