Do the Koranists believe that Sunnis are Mushrik

The directions of the Islamic interpretation of the Koran-1920-Goldziher

^^^

w 1

che tlnivcr ^ il ^ v otCbicaAO


i

1
1

i i
i i

; '^: -': /;:? v *:;: '; zi;%; Z? a5B; i ^; / iSi; ^ ii ^

THE DIRECTIONS

OF THE ISLAMIC QORAN INTERPRETATION.

t,

*
i,

THE DIRECTIONS

THE ISLAMIC

KORANA LAYOUT
OLAUS PETRI LECTURES HELD AT UPSALA UNIVERSITY

OF

IGNAZ GOLD PULLER.

PUBLICATIONS OF THE

DE GOEJE FOUNDATION "

N. VI.

BOOKSTORE AND PRINTING FORMERLY E. J. BRILL, LEIDEN.


1920.

652C> 77

In memory of the expensive


MINE

YOUR LOVED DAUGHTER-IN-LAW'S EARLY TARGETED

MARIE GOLDZIHER
(st.

born

Freudenberg

4.

December 19 18)

Consecrated with melancholy.

CONTENT.
page

Preface
The primitive level of the Koran interpretation The traditional Koran interpretation
. .

IX
.
.

X
54
.

i
99

179 Karan interpretation of Islamic mysticism .... 180 262 Sectarian interpretation of the Koran ........ 263 309
Dogmatic interpretation of the Koran

9855

Islamic modernism and its interpretation of the Koran


.
.

310370
371

Corrections and additions

392

FOREWORD.
book

The

presented here

contains the extended working

Presentation of the lectures, which I held at the honorable invitation of the board of the Olaus-Petri-StifUing in September 1913
of the University of Upsala and which in one through

concerned Swedish translation and d. T. Islam fordom och nu. Studier i Korantolkningeits Hisioria (Stokholm, H. Geber 1915; 238 pp.) Have appeared ^). The

Mr. ToR

Andrae

I already gave the manuscript for dispatch in March 1919 and it was therefore no longer possible to take into account the literature that has appeared in the text since then

taken

become. Otherwise would be


(S.

z.

B.

some

Place of the sect section

270

ff.)

with reference to the 'meanwhile published

second

tape

of

NLDEKE SH WALLY,

history

of

Qorans (19 19) have been abbreviated. The traffic difficulties prevailing at the time of dispatch and printing made

impossible to do the sentence corrections yourself. I have to say many thanks to my friends Prof. Snouck HurGRONJE and Prof. Wensinck fr
it
dXo ^

the

author

loving

and conscientious

the

Taking over the correction work

Mhew attitude that they put in for me.

The remaining misprints, the list of which I would ask you to consider before using the book, are due to a summavian orientation formed the subject of a
(Budapest 19125 24 pp.),
in the

l)

Hungarian.
k'-

Academy held Krsl Csoma memory lecture:


lnfcle irdnyairl

A Koran magyarazat

X
tion of the
len

FOREWORD.

indistinct condition of my print manuscript, which was made out under unbelievably cloudy conditions, too steloft

to apologize with regard to the same. The transcription of the Arabic words is in the same way
[

and

happen

the

I

in

mean

lectures

[About Islam,

the continuation of which the current lectures were originally intended to have followed. It was not always possible for me to find the ones connected with some spaciousness.

Heidelberg 1910],

as

break through the lecture framework. This time, too, I'm mine for the creation of the index
former pupil Mr. Gymnasium director Prof. Dr. Bern-

hard Heller Finally


thanks

Committed.

I take this opportunity to express my most heartfelt expression to the honorable Archbishop
fr

D. N. SDERBLOM, of my calling


lectures
has looked after.
s.

the Olaus-Petri-

Z.

stimulated and

same

most amicable

Budapest, March

1920.

I.

GOLD PULLER.

THE PRIMITIVE

LEVEL OF THE QURAI DESIGN.

the Bible-related Peter Werenfels: the reformed theolos 'fc.'
applies

Also from the Koran

word

Everyone looks for his dogmas in this holy book. Everyone finds what he is looking for in it.
Every tendency of the spirit that emerged in the course of the history of Islam followed the sacred one

Certificate to

justify their adherence to Islam by the same,

their identity with the


manufacture.

Proclamation of the Prophet to the right

That was the only way

Place in the middle of this

religious

System claim and claim. This endeavor and its exegetical exercise was natural
Competition

the planting place of a tendency to excerpt from scripture, which is right

soon one

with the simple explanatory activity

has competed.

The following investigations have the task of showing in detail in which way and with which
Success that goal was sought by the various religious schools of historical Islam.

The most primitive stage of the interpretation of the Koran, its germinal beginnings are presented to us in the constitution
of the text itself.

It
as

there is no canonical,

from a religious association

revealed or inspired

Document dogmatically recognized

tes book whose


in

text

in the earliest time of his

handling

such a picture of wavering and uncertainty

that is how we suffered this

on the text

of the Koran.

All along the line of the old history of Islam, only sparing successes, which the drive to dogmatic unity yes on the
has achieved.

There are

Strictly closed dogmatism, the penetration of template-like uniformity is her manifestations as her-

protruding trait not characteristic and stages in the foreground.

only occurs in

later

On the other hand, we can look at not unimportant

Yes

even on

fundamental attributes of the religious being observe that Islam's tendency towards canonical egalitarianism

is foreign or at least not essential in the beginning '). There is no uniform text of the Koran. And we can see the first phase of the interpretation of the Koran in the various forms of this. That in itself in details
(al-ldr'a

Not

standardized

textus

receptiis,

the lectio vulgata

al-maschhra) of the Koran goes back to the editorial staff, which through the efforts of the third QhdtXiiew ^ '^ Othmn,
conditions
the

came,

around

Word of God in

to prevent imminent danger that different circles in textually from one another

other deviating

Use not

in

and handled in liturgical agreement. So


handed down

to shape

a well-justified one

Tendency towards uniformity.


is

However, this endeavor


lungs.

not right across the board

The assumed original text that is still


as

stricter sense
nen, in

the

scriptures of other religions

every single word, in every single letter,

literally

taken, the kalm


Catholic

Allah that

Speak of God

there-

i)

Compare my lecture:

Tendency and

F articular isimis

in Islam

(Feer-Rydberg memorial session, Stockholm, Sept. 21, 1913). Contributions to religious studies, year.


I.

(191 3/14), 115

142.

to deliver

claims whose authentic text from eternity on the lauh mahfz, on the well-preserved heavenly table
,

lish

recorded and therefore by the disclosure

Chosen prophets had been brought orally, shows since the earliest times of Islam in a large number of places on competent tradition based variae lectiones, not always of indifferent kind,
guardian angel
on.

the

In relation to them, there is now a tendency to tolerate differences. Because such variants will be
Fixing eliminates, as would be expected with a divine text, which is only in a unified and in fact in

not in favor of a decreed as exclusively justified

a generally received one

can raise to divine authenticity, but it becomes the authenticity d. H.

Shape the claim

in this case the divine origin of the variants admitted side by side. This appearance is of the great
in

Leader of our science,

Theodor Nldeke,

in

his
First-

basic, published six decades ago

H ^ jKf

works of art

Qorans: A prize awarded by the Paris Academie des Inscriptions

history

of
in

script (Gttingen
criticism

1860)^)

of their

Relation to the Koran

dealt with in detail.

A large number of such variants owe their origin to the peculiarity of the Arabic script, in which the same graphic skeleton depending on the difference and the

Number of points placed above or below the same thing represents different phonetic values ​​^) and where also with the same
1)

Second edition
On
these

edited by

Friedrich Seh Wally.


yourself

I.

Part, Leip-

umpteen 1909.

2)

Peculiarity

supports

the narration that the

Residents

the

Locality

UbuUa

un hospitable
should,

(not Ajla) on the Tigris, with which the explaners used the anonymous city in Sura i8 BC. 76 identify, "^ Omar asked

in the text of the

Koran's that

the two

(Moses and his

compromising fa-abati they refused to entertain companions) "in fa-atait they came

you

to entertain them "(Journ. asiat. 1852 11 74). The same is said of the residents of Tlemsen (Agdir) j Basset Nedromah et les Traras (Paris 1901) Introduction, XII note 3.

4
phonetic

Values

the difference in the original

Arabic script lacks vowel designation, a difference in the grammatical situation of a word and, 'im

context
The

thus, in the meaning of the same, evokes. various additions to the graphic skeleton and

the varied vocalization of the mono-shaped consonant

it was now

the

most primitive

Cause of emergence

the one not at all or at least carelessly punctured or


vocalized

text

performing

Illustrating First, some examples will serve the various equipment


:

To

in the

Variant Movement '). Facts only like here

of the graphic framework 7 v. 46. Those on the corridors between paradise and hell
:

Standing call the


to you
please yours

for hell

Certain to: what has


that you

Collect and
,),

I hope you were good? "


what her on
the the

Instead of the tastakbirna (with

the

the meaning given here (^)


it,

tung ^ corresponds to read some tastaktkirna have acquired much ". That. v. 55: He is
as

happy

Message [biischrmi with

,)

sends "; that

Wind last word

is also read naschran (;): spreading ". 9 v. 115 a promise that he (Abraham) made to him [ijjhu, with.)

spoke

would have".

For that

Has

a,

strangely enough through
abhtL (with i) his father ".
in

Hammd
4
V.

al-rwija represented
is

'L ^^ sd.xt

96

a particularly instructive case

which one

nearly

all letters of a word from the one just discussed

Appearance to be affected:


you set off

you
(d.

Orthodox! if
H.

the way

Allah's

to war against


and

the unbelievers), make sure of the difference

do not speak to everyone who offers you peace: you are not a true believer ". Instead of the word, this with
made sure

you of the difference "translates

is:

fatabaj (ver

Jan

read

respected

Koran author rides

fatathabbat

i) Cf.

Nldeke,

History of the Qoran

261 above.

The skeleton \ ^^^^ tolerates both ^). However, these and similar variants do not cause any for the general sense and legal application
create steadfast customers).

Difference.

Such a
2 V.
51.

lies
is

however

in

the following position:

It

the

Talk of the wrath of Moses

than he the

Ver

production
liten

and the worship of the golden calf by the Israelites; he said: O my people, you are against yours

Wrong souls by appropriating the calf. Now, turn to your Maker and kill one another (i.e. the guilty ones among you). This is good for you with your Maker; and may he return to you,
the Returning One, the Merciful ". And each other!

because

he

is

kills
t

'^)

et

to you

itself) falpttd anfusakum this corresponds iri to the fact of the relation in Exod. 32 v. 27 what the source of the Koranic
;

Words
Katda
fr

is.

Old

respected interpreters of the Koran (the Basrenser

735] is named as the authority for it) liked this order to kill oneself or the killing of the guilty
[st.

found too harsh and inappropriate; they drew it

in front,

the

stave

Konsonantengerippe \ JL9V9, in the fourth book by the relocation of the two main points
:

Forming the sound fa-all below with the senses brings about the cancellation of what has happened ", namely
through repentance for the sin committed. This example already shows, in contrast to the previous ones, in which the
variant
just

by

graphical technical circumstances


as

was evoked, factual considerations cause the divergent reading.


Same

contributing ?:

Appearance appears at 48

v.

to be present.

1) In the Kitb al-dijt of Abu "^ sim al-nabil of a ti-aditional report on this verse of the Koran

(st.

906) is referred to on occasion and in two

Parallel versions of the same once xa \ t faiathahbat ^ the other time with fatabajjan ^


quoted

(Cairo 1323 ed. Na '^ asni, 14 15). 2) Cf. 4 V. 33 according to the interpretation in Ibn Sa ^ d VI 52.

Here

can be

Muhammed of

I sent you when you believed in Allah and his Prophet and stood by him (i.e. God), honoring him and praising him in the morning and

Addressing God: Truly, I witnesses, ambassadors and warners; in order to

in the evening ". Fr
means
:

the word that you assist him "wa-tu ^ azzirhii some read with the addition of one
it is not excluded for

The upper point above the pointless r: wa-tu ^ azzizhu with it


you glorify him ". I hold
'),

that the concern that the idea that God expects help from people played a part in this text change

and assistance. Of course, the thought comes that God will stand by those who help him to victory "
(22 v. 41

59

V.

S)

47 V. 8 cf. they help God ^) and his prophet "in the Koran several times in other ways too, unapproved by readers;

However, the synonym ^) nasara used in all these places may allow you to understand more in an ethical sense and not so glaring the impression
stood,
in front.

more material

Assistance

illustrated

have like
'^ tsar

the

at

our
"^ azzara.

Job

applied (with the Heb.

identical)

With the slight addition of a single dot, this concern could be remedied: by providing assistance

has been

the

glorification

God's, a text-critical proposition

which we will discuss in more detail in the course of this section.

will have to come.


overwhelming
yourself
is

the

Number of variants,

in

those

it

It is a question of whether two points above or below are to be added to the graphic abstraction in the former case
;

the second person surrenders

(t),

in

the latter the third person

Singularis

(j).

The meaning

suffers from such variants

barely

any essential


c ^ ii ^:
:

Turn
adoption

^).

i)
i .. ^
.

On the other hand

is

also the

not to reject that the la. With %

O'

the original one, from which the one with r is first corrupted. the following two synonyms are added, of course.

To

zva-tii'azzizhtt

2) See Jud. 5 V. 23 c. 3) Cf. 7 v. 156. 4) Nldeke, 1. c. 282. With regard to such variants, has
'

one to the prophet

With this we step into the circle of vowel differences with the same consonant stock, which also means
only grammatical varieties arise ^). 15 V. 8. We do not send down the angels unless with the truth ". Depending on the various readers that
the

Sending down
(all

the angel significant

word

as

nimaz-

zilu-l-mal ^ ikata, or tanzilu-l-mala'ikatu or tunzaht-l-mal'i-

read katu
these

these readings are represented provincially),


:

give
Angel

Words or the meaning


;

We will send
'

the

down

the

It

becomes

Angels descend. but by such

Different vocalizations

sometimes also

more drastic change in meaning
:

evoked; e.g. 13V. 43 waman ^ indahit '^ ilm-ul-kitbi and with whom the knowledge of the book is; this sentence appears in
a reading variant in the following

Shape wamin
:

'^ indihi' ^ ilm-ul-k.

and from him (comes) the knowledge vowel change in the word


:

d. B.

The following is a further one

Variant approved ivamin '^ indihi' ^ tUima-l-kitbu, and from him the book became known ^). In vowel differences, through which at the same time the syntactic

The structure of the Koran verse is conditioned, legal differences are occasionally reflected. The classic side table
game offers for this
5

sene

Permission,

in

Those rejected by the Shfites in preparation for prayer instead of
v.
8.

Immediate washing of the feet to be satisfied with the smearing of the footwear ^) is based on that of the preposition

dependent genitive form zva-ardschulikum (and smeared on your feet), while the

(wamsah)

bi-

the

different

Assigned instruction If you have an opinion on the prefixes t and j, write with / {Usd al-gliba I 193 above), This is an excellent opportunity for such reading differences i)
:

ver

the

Letter group
Job.

A prime example of this and of the grammatical artistry involved in motivating one and the other of these varieties.
3 V, 16
is a

17
z.

if

you

the Lautvvert

from Inna ^ aima ^ or only to dar-

2)

Cash

St,

499. 273.

3)

lectures

Promotion of immediate foot washing the accusative dependent on the preceding verb faghsil (then wash)

shape

of the word:

iva-ardschulakum (and washes .... and

your feet). Another layer of those emerging in this field

variants
daring
in

arises

in

interpretative additions

[zijdt)

of

Insertion, through which the vagueness of the text is sometimes remedied by more precise determination

fluctuating interpretation should be prevented. Especially from two companions of the Prophet, whose textual tradition

in general
'^)

the most radical

'},

self

the stock

the one touching the suras

Deviations

having,

become such

Text extensions passed down;

both very respected teachers

of the oldest Islamic community: '^ Abdallah b. Mas ^ d '^) and Ubejj b. Ka ^ b *). Dfe text versions of the first were used by Christian

Polemicists

in

indeed

as

Argument against

the authenticity of the

ordinary Koran editing used ^). Despite the extensive changes, not just letter, vowel and word variants that the

Koran text through their readings

learns

enjoyed

i)

Nldeke,

1.

c.

227. 232.

ij ^ j,

(j) j;, ^ tU, ii

^ -ly ^ v

Accusations that the MuHazilit NazzTwi made against Ibn Mas'-nd were also that he rejected two suras (113, 114) as inauthentic ((ischahada) and that "^ Othmn said anything bad ever since the
many

2) Among the

for the Koran editorial staff of the Zajd b. Thbit decided (Ibn Kutajba, Tc ^ wll muchtalif al-hadith [Cairo, matb. Kurdistan 1326] 26). ^ -Sw ^ v ^ JY-l-i> ^ '^'> rt '^ -) 3) Once also' ^ A. b. al-Mas ^ d (Ibn Sa '^ d 111,1 112, 9); often referred to as ibn umm (iu ^ (i (> ^ CUTI-, J- ^ Abd (book. FaMil al-ashb no. j, ^^ Ibft zV II, 11 99, 3 and in his article, ibid. III. /'^AAA.-i.rtC ^ f, 9 6-f passim; 182, 11) the common short form "^ Abd in
i

Chalife

Sd- ^ dK .; itx ^^ y, ^
Sti'r (i '<^' ac /.) ') VcoL.ttt

many

old proper name is through


been
Find
be
in
(see.

the

ZDMG

LI 265 mentioned consideration


4,

caused
^"
^^')*

I7

t ^ Sc.k.4-

^^^'

the same

Wellhausen, row too

Leftovers arab. Paganism

12

Umm

^ Abd bint ^ Abd

Wadd

<^ - Lt ^^^ Q ^, ^ \ ^
^^ '% Ji-4yUi ~ ..J
N ^.> TA -. I -, "yi ^ f! IV.f ,, / f.

ij ^

Sa \ i 111, i 106, 18). J ^ (^ Ibn 4) Except him and one


isnd at

Companions

same
II

Named [Usd
b.

al-ghba I 49)

in one more particularly as 267, 14 Tirmidi, (Blk 1292) a ^ K ^ uM,. (5j ^ l *! ^^^ separates him from al-harlr the name is denoted in traditional celts; / o / fe. Sc /-^5;i., '77 'a ^ yU /' '^.' "The companion standing at the top and two links are between him" rTf ^ '^ .. and Tirmidi. C I r

we meet in traditional literature

yet another U.

K. at

Sahlh

Where

he

Ly

.i \.
~

t;)

Ibn Hazm,

Milal

(Cairo 1321)

II

75.

'

'

'J

-;

(huU: .c i ^ i ^) -. ^ j-i> 9

you,

part

with reference to the Urdas reputation ascribed to the Prophet as the best authoritarian rites of the Koran text -). ')

'Ubejj, its itself


applies

Muhammad

also

as

Clerk served

^'),

herefor

by none other


as

most competent companion "[ahro ^ iihum) and was best suited to teaching neophytes to be acquainted with the revelations of the Koran

accepted,

the

the angel Gabriel Koran connoisseur among the


as

do

^).

^ Abdallah

b.

MasYid still have

as

poor shepherd

boy out

Took over 70 suras of the Koran from the mouth of the Prophet and the holy revelations under the Mek '').

Kanern first spread (afsch)


both

After a

in the

best
share

Collections recorded saying of the prophet


:

the privilege of having two companions. Learn the Koran from four from Ibn Massoud, from Slim, maul des Abu Hudejfa, from Ubejj b. Kd'b and from Mu ^ d b. Jebel "
'^).

And

the recognized traditionalist mujhid


:,

let

man

loading

know

'Dignity
so

I

the reading of Ibn Mas' ^ d

know

have learned

would have

I

me many questions that I ask Ibn


'^).

"^ Abbs have directed, can spare"


Of course it has

man
the

on the other hand, also in earlier times


arbitrary

Rejection
height

Readings

of

Authority of Ibn ^ Abbs knotted ^), is said to have enjoyed lessons, but did not want to obey him ^). The Ibn Mas' ^ d is used as a justification
1)

Ubejj to those of his own

Ibn

Sa'-d II,

11

103

105,
Sketches and preparatory work IV
(Texts) 11 no. 24Y

2) Ibid.

102, 22..

3) e.g.

Wellhausen,
6.

18 no. 46.
4) Ibid. (Texts) 47,
5)
'

Ibn

Sa '^ d III,

107,

5. 9.

The traditions at Kasiallul X 278 on book. Ahkiit no. 25. This Hadlth is used by the learned slave in A Thousand and One Nights (Blk 1279) II 371 (448 N.) when she has to answer the question of who is leaving 6)
the most beautiful authorities of the Kcran text. See Caetani,

Annali

II

711

Where

out

various ranks of such preferred Quran readers are listed in the tradition


7) Tirmidl, Sah'ih II 157, 12. 8) Ibn Sa ^ d
9) Cf.
1,

are.

c.

15, 15.
V. u.

IhjTi I

78, 3

10

Text versions deviating from the othmnian stipulations, the bitter utterance is said to be unsettled

added

People
b.

on the Koran
applies
^),
.

Embezzlement

have committed.

Zejd

Thbit, which is called

pied

Text

the most outstanding witness of the rezisei a little one with other boys

a boy playing around when he (Ibn M.) had already received seventy and seventy suras (cf. above) from the mouth of the prophet himself ^) or according to another version
:

I already had Islam


in

accepted

than yourself

the

Lumbar

one

pagan

Man

Zejd still found "*). How


back-

could then

his,

on the immediate

Original source

going statements should be put on the back of those of Zejd? What appreciation you can get next to the usual versions
also

the

excessive
'),

changes to those
the

both

Traders

awarded

Appearance show that the later Pietism under various accusations that one used to justify the rebellion against the Khalifa

can also

* ^ Othmn and his assassination wont to raise, even the sinning adds that the Chalife that of those

i)

To

one at Ibn Sa '^ d III,

270, 11

ff.

communicated message has Ibn

M.

out

Piett fr

Reading (in
2)

In memory of '^ Omar (a special case differing from that of the latter) with the expression of deep emotion.
the

in

one

At the time of Ibn Dschubejr (^ Travels ^ ed. Wright-de Goeje 104, 5) Kubba des Heil. Area in Mecca an allegedly by Z. b. Th.

1 1. c. 225 Note 2. The degradation also the intended note that he was encouraged to recite the 7th sura, this was not able to / i ;? Sifd V, 211, 5.

handwritten Koran venerated. 3) Ibn Sa ^ d II, il 105, 15, Nldeke
of
Z.

maybe

4)

Usd

al-ghba

80,

12

v.

u.

s.

v.

Ism '^ rl.

How

the later, mostly

Men who played a role in the early days of Islam were placed in the circle of ascetics, so Zejd did not escape this transformation either. He heard from the Prophet that the endurance of feverish fish

Legend

the

Ness

The fever lifts the sins as the bellows removes the dirt from the iron "{Usd al-ghba V, 619). Then he turned to God in a prayer to grant him this favor. From hour on
the fever did not leave him up to

5) In

at the end of his life {Ihj IV 276, 1 1 a Hadlth at Buch, which goes back to Abu Darr. TauJd
V.

v.

u.).

No.

22

turns 36

38

expressly according to the reading of the

'^ Abdallah (b.Mas' ^ d)

listed.

II

both pious companions established the Koran editors

Is said to have given up flames: the same in the case of Ibn Mas' ^ ad
motif is inserted. He
activity

a

irreproachable will,

a

should

very special throat because of the official

of

the

Flavors

the

Pious

in

his

The way of life of the governor of Kfa, Walid b. ^ OMa, whom the Khalife had appointed in his place after Ibn Massud was deposed, publicly provocative

Have held speeches and also condemned the exile of Abu Darr in a large gathering ^). Among the humiliations inflicted on him ^) the legend also mentions the burning of his Koran editorial office {ihrk mashafiki ^).
')

However, it is not these two companions "alone, to whom insertions in the received Koran text are ascribed
;

others will every now and then


called.

as

Authorities of the same

What now
clear,

such additions

^)

even concerns it is not right

if

the

Inserts

of

their

Authors

as

real

Text annotations
those who

or just

as

do not deny the text

but only this one

explanatory glosses

Were sighted the one later

Generation in the first sense

treated. To justify the same, the doctrine has been handed down in the name of companions that it is permitted to the

To incorporate such glosses that promote understanding in the Qur'an,

without one

you as

to the

revealed text belonging

i) Lectures 143. 2) Ibn Hischin ^ ed. Wstenfeld 901, sensitive description of his affinity to Abu Darr, He buries the abandoned corpse of the in exile

dead pious man.


3)
II

Muhibb

al-Tabarl,

al-Rijxi al-n ^ dira

fl majikib

al- '^ aschara (Cairo

1327)

139.8 v.u.

4) About it Ya ^ kbi ^ ed. Houtsma II, 197. In his Hibbert lectures, D. S. Margoliouth, with regard to the authenticity of the othmnical text, too much weight seems to be placed on the accusations widespread about the destruction of other texts

to lay {^ The early development of


5)

Also
No.

Omissions
v.

Read Abu-1-Dard 92
asjb
27,

Tafslr no.

350

351

Muhammedanism [London 1914] 37 f.) Are suggested. "^ Abdallah b. Mas' ^ d and the words wam chalaka not (book. Fad''il alz.

St.).

12

acknowledge (dschawzu ithbt lam ja ^ takidhu kur'nan) '),


3
V.
;

baM

al-iafsir fi-1-mashaf wa'in

Plur.

44: And I come to you with signs [bi-jtin, the received text has i-jatin, Sing.) From your Lord.

So

fears

AUh [+ because of

whose,

by which

I am equal to you

come
calling] "
-).

and obey me [+ in what those in brackets are for, from "^ Abdallah
am]

to you

b. Mas' ^ d

traditional announcements

took

like a paraphrase

the simpler text on which they are based.


2,'^

V.

6:

self

The prophet is closer to the believers than they are, and his wives are their mothers ". For the purpose
pushes Ibn Massud
Digit *) the
^)

the

Rounding off the thought


Marked points
Father"
^).

at the

through here
he is them

Words

a:

and

2 V. 209: The people were one community; Then God sent prophets as children of joyful and warning messages and sent down with them the book with the truth.

so that he might make a decision among men as to what they disagreed on. "The two companions mentioned
Ness,

switch

here,

according to the requirements of logic


he u.
s.

the

Sentence:

then sent

w. "the words a and

you

became disagreed

(fachtalaf) ".

One
variants

religious

Concern seems next to small words.

a

the ^ Abdallah
V. 8

Mas' ^ d attributed to er-

addition to 58

First of all: not three have a confidential conversation without Allah (the ordinary

i)

At Zurlim to Muwatta

25 5 ^ above.

2)

Kas created
He will
206,

z.

St,

148.
/ J ^ amachscliari,

3)
z.

than 5 u.

Author of this variant named at


19,

Cash

St. 11

4) Jhiz,
consequences.
les

Tria opuscula

12

lets

the club after their mothers "

Lammen will probably not find his view of this Jhiz passage (Ftima et and his conclusion from it de Mahomet 98, note 4)
Prophet in the same sura
v.

keep right.
5) Of course he rejects it

40 expressly from,

as

father

to be considered of the members of his community.

13

Text here and


Not
four,

in

the following always:


(he)

he) her fourth,

and
five,

without that Allah


Allah
T.
(he)

her fifth,

and not

without

that

you

sixth would be and

not less

w. adna) than this and nothing more without Allah (he) being with them [when they begin their conversation {akalhi,

achad fi-1-tandschi] '). The addition in brackets is intended to avert concerns that the

nen

id

omnipresent God does not only appear as a witness at the time of the conversation; rather he is already against

been worthy of when


Indifferent
is

you yourself

for the same still to be sent


b.

^).

a

Completion of ^ Abdallah

Mas% d

to II

ham)

74: (while Abraund his wife was entertaining the angels "; '^ Abdallah adds:
v.

wahuwa
lations
just,

ka ^ idun while he (Abraham) sat.

Such inter-

are often undertaken where it is not, as in the examples just cited, a desired addition in a religious or religious context, but where the same is directed towards a more detailed definition

gischer
delt,

a legal one

Targeted regulation
v. 28,

will the

usually the admissible

text appears in a very vague version.

In the Quran text 4
speed

out

which one
becomes,

the

nmfah-E, h.Q

(Temporary marriage)

inferred

to

better ones

Justification of the admissibility of this form of marriage at the decisive point the words il adschalin musamman (up to
at a fixed date ") inserted ^). 2 V. 194 in the midst of the Meccan pilgrimage

Ordinances: You will not be counted as an offense if you follow the grace of your God
timely

to leave no doubt that in these words the permission to do so, which some have doubted, is given
strive ".
is

Around

during the time of the religious exercises of the pilgrimage

the

Fachr al-dln al-RzI, Mafh al-ghajb z. St. (Blk 1289 in 8 Bden) VIII 162. 2) The motif of this insertion is less transparent in that of Zamachid intajatc. scharl, cash register hf z. St. made indication of the text of the same
1)
:

3) Vg ^ -

lectures

274 (15:5).

14

To conduct commercial business'), which was the most important source of advertising for the Meccans

in the (earlier, in pagan times bHchen) markets of hajj "-}. 2 V. 239. Observe the prayers and the middle ge:

of Ibn "^ abbs

the addition proposed


much

Divergence of opinion as to which of the five obligatory daily liturgies should be understood under the indefinite name of the middle prayer (== al-salt al-wust)
^).

bet ". That prevails

Man

Has

tries,

it

on the morning and that

Lunch salt available. The vast majority of the old

Explainer wants to mean the afternoon service by this,

Great importance was generally attached to it, a view that penetrated Islam from abroad ^). now against this interpretation
because
this

Time of day in

Around

To protect competing time determinations, the representatives of the same have their interpretation in the Koran text
with inserted. A client of the '^ jischa is allowed to give her name for the sake of greater credibility. Hamida, daughter of Abu Jonus, is told
:

that

the

Widow of the prophet


;

her family her traveling

I bequeathed belongings including her copy of the Koran; in this the verse had the following text: Beo-

Prayers and the middle prayer, [(that is) the ^ Asr] '\ ^ jischa himself asked about the correct text, assured me: So we observed according to the original reading
the

l-harf al-azvzval) recited the verse during the Prophet's lifetime. One knows, once invented, also in

i) Cf.

62

V.

to let
you

can be after the


z.

10 (during the Friday service the trade has to be done but the salt is done, then scatter in the country and

Strive for the grace of Allah "

d. H.

your economic inter-

pursue food.
2) Cash 3) Maybe
St.

s. v. a.

the

most excellent

vSaltj

see.

Lammen, Le
f.

Caliphate de

Yazld
4)

I,

57 note

i.

The importance of the afternoon time


ff.

in Islam, Ar eh.

Religious

IX 293

15

quite believable form of telling that Hafsa, another


Wife of the prophet, had a copy of the Koran made and drew the scribe's attention to it,
her to

report when he will have reached the prayer times. When the scribe had now arrived at the verse,

Client. She now dictated to him: Observe the prayers and the middle prayer, that is from the '^ Asr prayer, so I have the place she said

reported

he

this

his

Prophet himself belongs ".


'^ Asr prayer
another

The

now put others who

the

middle prayer "at least coordinated

kidneys

want,
you

a

another version of the Hafsa tradition

against.

would have

her mouth,

the

you

commissioned fr

you

a

To make a copy of the Koran, taught the dictation in the following form: the prayers and the middle prayer and the
* ^ Asr prayer ".

The
b.

middle
all

would therefore be from

the

'^ Asr ver

divorced.

And around

Run bar

To exhaust possibilities, the ^ Azib must serve as authority for the report,

after which during the Prophet's lifetime the text was read like this for many years Observe the prayers and the ^ sr:

Gebef \ This original regulation abrogated the


Prophet himself "changed" this provision.
in the

Words and that

mid-

The Koran decreed

(5

v.

91) for

Sons of rupture un-

thoughtful oath {laghiv) the feeding of ten arms .... or their clothing, or the absolution of a neck
(Slaves).

Days ".
term

But who does it? Now it's already

not in order
in

is:

fasting three


controversial

the old

Generation oine

Question,

whether with the latter modality of fasting

interrupted series of three consecutive days is prescribed, or whether the sons by pasting
one
three

also

Not

coherent

Days

as

completed

All i) Mtnvatta I 254 ff., Stman al-SchfiH (Kairo 1315 ed. Kabbni) 8.Traditions relating to this in numerous versions, in Taharl ^ Tafsir (cited from here on only as' Tabarl, according to the first edition, Kairo 1321 ) II

321331.

i6

to be viewed as

can.

Among the rite schools


uninterrupted

is

it the

of

Abu

Hanlfa made in accordance with several ancient


a

Traditional authors

line

of

three

Days
The

calls for;

the

Fasting from

three separate

Days bees easier.

work the

Sons not; take other schools

Representatives of the former

Conception solve the Gordian

Knots by adding their opinion to the text of the Koran with an explanatory addition. You are about to read
:

fasijmmi thalthati ajjniin [mutatbi '^ tiit]. The usual texts do not already use this last word for the two of them
;

c <^^ H \ ^ t ^

The above-mentioned traders close to the Koran editors (Ubejj, ibn Mas' ^ nd) are mentioned in numerous, in Tabari (VII i8

l.yCiir

/ '-' T ^

'//("'

19)

3-lined-up versions the

admission

this inter-

well, 3.

pretative excess in

the Koran text
put

attributed to.

A lighter type of variant


in

Deviations
appears
fr

daring

those

in

the different versions

a different Sy ^),

nonym to express the same thought when z. B. 2 v. 45 Abu-1-Sirr al-Ghanawi

how
^ at

nafsitn

nafsin (one soul for the other) prefers the synonymous nasamatun ^ to nasamatin '^). Has such textual differences