Which is older Vedic or Zoroastrianism

Zoroaster - Zoroaster

Founder of Zoroastrianism

Zoroaster (/ ˈZɒroʊæstər /, Great Britain also / ˌzɒroʊˈæstər /; Greek: Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (/ ˌZærəˈθuːstrə /, UK also / ˌzːrə- /; Avestan: 𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra (Persian: زرتشت) was an ancient Iranian prophet (spiritual leader) who founded today's Zoroastrianism. His teachings challenged the existing traditions of the Indo-Iranian religion and opened a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in ancient Persia. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian plateau, but his exact place of birth is uncertain.

There is no scientific consensus on this when he was alive. Some scholars, using linguistic and sociocultural evidence, suggest dating somewhere in the second millennium BC. Most scholars date it to the 7th and 6th centuries BC. As a contemporary of Cyrus the Great and Darius I, while some as early as the 6th millennium BC Have speculated about dates. Zoroastrianism eventually became the official religion of ancient Persia and its distant subdivisions from the 6th century BC. Until the 7th century AD Zoroaster is ascribed the authorship of the Gathas and the Yasna Haptanghaiti, hymns that were written in his native dialect Old Avestan and form the core of Zoroastrian thought. Most of his life is known from these texts. According to a modern standard of historiography, no evidence can put it in a fixed period, and the historicization that surrounds it can be part of a trend from before the 10th century that historicizes legends and myths.

Name and etymology

Zoroaster's name in his native language, Avestan, was probably Zaraϑuštra. Its English name "Zoroaster" is derived from a later (5th century BC) Greek transcription, Zōroastrēs (Ζωροάστρης), as used in Xanthus' s Lydiaca (fragment 32) and in Plato's First Alcibiades (122a1). This form appears later in Latin Zōroastrēs and in later Greek orthographies as Ζωροάστρις Zōroastris. The Greek form of the name seems to be based on a phonetic transliteration or semantic substitution of Avestan zaraϑ- by the Greek ζωρός zōros (literally "undiluted") and the Avestan -uštra with ἄστρον Astron ("star"). ).

In Avestan it is generally assumed that Zaraϑuštra is descended from an old Iranian * Zaratuštra-; It is believed that the element half of the name (-uštra-) is the Indo-Iranian root for "camel", the entire name means "who can manage camels". Reconstructions from later Iranian languages ​​- especially from Middle Persian (300 BC) Zardusht, the form the name took in Zoroastrian texts of the 9th to 12th centuries - suggest that * Zaratuštra- a zero-degree form of * Zarantuštra-. Subject to the question of whether Zaraϑuštra comes from * Zarantuštra- or from * Zaratuštra-, several interpretations have been suggested.

If Zarantuštra is the original form, this can mean "with old / aging camels", based on Avestic zarant- (cf. Pashto zōṛ and Ossetian zœrond, "old"; Middle Persian zāl, "old"):

  • "with angry / angry camels": from Avestan * zarant-, "angry, angry".
  • "who drives camels" or "who cares for / appreciates camels": related to Avestan zarš-, "pull".
  • Mayrhofer (1977) suggested an etymology of "whoever wants camels" or "longing for camels" and referred to Vedic Sanskrit har-, "like" and perhaps (albeit ambiguously) also to Avestan zara-.
  • "with yellow camels": parallel to Younger Avestan zairi-.

The interpretation of the -ϑ- (/ θ /) in Avestan was zaraϑuštra for a Time itself is hotly debated because the-because- is an irregular development: Usually * zarat- (a first element that ends in a tooth consonant ) should have Avestan zarat- or zarat̰- as a development from it. Why this is not the case with zaraϑuštra has not yet been clarified. Notwithstanding the phonetic irregularity, later certificates reflecting the same basis show that Avestan zaraϑuštra with its -ϑ- was linguistically an actual form. All today's Iranian-language variants of his name are derived from the Central Iranian variants of Zarϑošt, which in turn reflect Avestan's fricative -ϑ-.

In Middle Persian, the name is 𐭦𐭫𐭲𐭥𐭱𐭲 Zardu (x) št, in Parthian Zarhušt, in Manichäer Middle Persian Zrdrwšt, in Early New Persian Zardušt and in Modern (New <) 110="">Persian), the name is زرتشت Zartosht.


There is no consensus on the dating of Zoroaster. The Avesta does not give direct information on it, while historical sources are conflicting. Some scholars base their date reconstruction on the Proto-Indo-Iranian language and Proto-Indo-Iranian religion, and therefore it is believed that it took place sometime in northeastern Iran between 1500 and 500 BC. Chr.

Some scholars like Mary Boyce (who dated Zoroasters between 1700 and 1000 BC) used linguistic and socio-cultural evidence to place Zoroasters between 1500 and 1000 BC (or 1200 and 900 BC). The basis of this theory is proposed mainly on linguistic similarities between the ancient Avestan language of the Zoroastrian Gathas and the Sanskrit of the Rigveda (c. 1700–1100 BC), a collection of early Vedic hymns. Both texts have a common archaic Indo-Iranian origin. The Gathas portray an ancient stone-bronze age two-part society of warrior-shepherds and priests (compared to the three-part bronze society; some speculations indicate that he was the

Other scholars suggest a period between the 7th and 6th centuries, for example c. 650-600 BC BC or 559-522 BC The latest possible date is the middle of the 6th century at the time of Darius I of the Achaemenid Empire or his predecessor Cyrus the Great. This date is gaining credibility largely because of the thesis that certain numbers must be based on historical facts, which is why some have associated the mythical Vishtaspa with Darius I's father Vishtaspa (or Hystaspes in Greek) account of Zoroaster's life. However, the Avesta should not ignore the fact that Vishtaspa's son became the ruler of the Persian Empire. Darius I would not neglect to include his patron in the Behistun inscription. Another suggested conclusion is that the father of Darius I was named in honor of the Zoroastrian patron saint, suggesting a possible Zoroastrian belief by Arsames.

indicates. Classical science in the 6th to 4th centuries BC Believed it existed six thousand years before Xerxes I invaded Greece in 480 BC. BC (Xanthus, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Hermippus) what is possible misunderstanding of the Zoroastrian four cycles of 3000 years, i.e. 12,000 years. This belief is recorded by Diogenes Laërtius, and variant readings could suggest it six hundred years before Xerxes I, somewhere before 1000 BC. BC, placing. However, Diogenes also mentions Hermodorus' belief that Zoroaster lived five thousand years before the Trojan War, which would mean he lived around 6200 BC. Chr. Lived. The 10th century Suda provides a date of "500 years before Plato" in the late 10th century BC. BC Pliny the Elder quoted Eudoxus, who also put his death six thousand years before Plato, c. 6300 BC Other pseudo-historical constructions are those of Aristoxenus, who recorded Zaratas, the Chaldean, to have taught Pythagoras in Babylon or at that time lived on mythological Ninus and Semiramis. After Pliny the Elder, there were two Zoroasters. The first lived thousands of years ago, while the second Xerxes I. 480 BC. Chr. Accompanied in the invasion of Greece. Some scholars suggest that the chronological calculation for Zoroaster was in the 4th century BC. Developed by Persian magicians, and as the early Greeks learned about him from the Achaemenids, this suggests that they did not consider him a contemporary of Cyrus the Great, but a distant figure.

Some later pseudo-historical and Zoroastrian sources (the Bundahishn referring to a date "258 years before Alexander") place Zoroaster in the 6th century BC, which coincided with the accounts of Ammianus Marcellinus from the 4th century AD. The traditional Zoroastrian date comes from the time immediately after the conquest of the Achaemenid Empire by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. The Seleucid rulers who came to power after Alexander's death introduced an "Age of Alexander" as a new calendar epoch. This did not appeal to the Zoroastrian priesthood, which then attempted to establish an "Age of Zoroaster". To do this, they had to determine when Zoroaster lived, which they had achieved through (incorrectly, some even identified Cyrus as Vishtaspa) by counting back the length of successive generations until they came to the conclusion that Zoroaster lived "258 years before Alexander" must have. This estimate then reappeared in the Arabic and Pahlavian texts of the Zoroastrian tradition of the 9th to 12th centuries, such as in the 10th century Al-Masudi, who quoted a prophecy from a lost Avestan book in which Zoroaster predicted the empire Destruction in three hundred years, but religion would last a thousand years.

Place you

The birthplace of Zoroaster is also unknown, and the Gathas language does not resemble the proposed regional dialects of northwest and northeast Persia. It is also believed that he was born in one of the two areas and later lived in the other area.

Yasna 9 and 17 cite the Ditya river in Airyanem Vaējah (middle) Persian Ērān Wēj) as Zoroaster's home and the scene of his first appearance. The Avesta (both old and younger parts) mention neither the Achaemenids nor western Iranian tribes such as the Medes, Persians or even Parthians. The Farvardin Yasht refers to some Iranian peoples who, in Greek and Achaemenid sources, refer to Eastern Iran from the 6th and 5th centuries BC. Are unknown. The Vendidad contains seventeen regional names, most of which are in northeastern and eastern Iran.

In Yasna 59.18 the zaraϑuštrotema or supreme head of the Zoroastrian priesthood is supposed to live in 'Ragha' (Badakhshan). In the Middle Persian texts of the Zoroastrian tradition of the 9th to 12th centuries, these "ragha" and many other places appear as places in western Iran. While the land of the media is not represented in the Avesta at all (the westernmost place indicated in the scriptures is Arachosia), the Būndahišn or "Primordial Creation" (20.32 and 24.15) places Ragha in Media (medieval Rai). In Avestan, however, Ragha is simply a toponym that means "plain, hillside".

Apart from this information in Middle Persian sources, which are open to interpretation, there are a number of other sources. The Greek and Latin sources are divided at the birthplace of Zarathustra. There are many Greek accounts of Zarathustra, commonly referred to as the Persian or Persomedian Zoroaster. Ctesias found him in Bactria, Diodorus Siculus placed him under Ariaspai (in Sistan), Cephalion and Justin suggest east of greater Iran, while Pliny and Origen suggest west Iran as his place of birth. In addition, they have the suggestion that there was more than one Zoroaster.

On the other hand, in post-Islamic sources, Shahrastani (1086–1153) is an Iranian. The writer Turkmenistan, originally from Shahristān, suggested that Zoroaster's father came from Atropatene (also in Medea) and his mother from Rey. Coming from a respected religious scholar, this was a severe blow to the various regions, all of which claimed that Zoroaster came from their home countries. Some of them then decided that Zoroaster must then have buried it in their regions or composed or preached his gathas there. Arabic sources from the same time and region of historical Persia also consider Azerbaijan to be the birthplace of Zarathustra.

By the end of the 20th century, most scholars had chosen an origin in the East

The 2005 Encyclopedia Iranica article on the history of Zoroastrianism sums the subject up with "although there is general agreement that he did not live in western Iran, it tries to locate it in certain regions of the east." Iran, including Central Asia, remains for the time being ".


Zoroastrians are registered as the son of Pourušaspa of the Spitamans or Spitamids (Avestan spit means "brilliant" "" or "white"; some argue that Spitama was a distant ancestral family) and Dugdōw, while his great-grandfather was Haēčataspa. All names seem appropriate to nomadic tradition His father's name means “to own gray horses” (with the word aspa means horse), while his mother's name means “milkmaid.” According to tradition, he had four brothers, two older and two younger, whose names were much later are mentioned in Pahlavi.

Priesthood formation likely began very early, at seven years of age. He became a priest, probably around the age of fifteen, and, according to Gathas, gained knowledge from other teachers and personal travel experience when he left his parents at the age of twenty. When he was thirty, he had a revelation during a spring festival; On the river bank he saw a shining being who revealed himself as Vohu Manah (Good Purpose) and taught him about Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord) and five other shining figures. Zoroaster soon became aware of the existence of two primordial spirits, the second being Angra Mainyu (destructive spirit) with opposing concepts of Asha (order) and Druj (deception). So he decided to spend his life teaching people to look for Asha. He received further revelations and saw a vision of the seven Amesha Spenta, and his teachings were in the Gathas and the Avesta.

Disciples of Zoroaster gathered in

Eventually, at the age of about forty-two, he received the patronage of Queen Hutaosa and a ruler named Vishtaspa, an early follower of Zoroastrianism (possibly from <) 180="">Bactria after Shahnameh). Zoroaster's teaching on individual judgment, heaven and hell, the resurrection of the body, the last judgment and eternal life for the reunification of soul and body were borrowed from the Abrahamic religions, among other things, but they lost the context of the original teaching.

According to tradition, he lived many years after Vishtaspa's conversion, managed to build a faithful community, and married three times. His first two wives bore him three sons, Isat Vâstra, Urvatat Nara and Hvare Chithra, and three daughters, Freni, Thriti and Pouruchista. His third wife, Hvōvi, was childless. Zoroaster died when he was 77 years and 40 days old. The later Pahlavi sources such as Shahnameh instead claim that an obscure conflict with Tuiryas resulted in his death, who was murdered by a Karapan (a priest of the ancient religion) named Brādrēs.

Kashmar cypress

The Kashmar cypress is a mythical cypress tree of legendary beauty and gigantic dimensions. It is said to have originated from a branch brought from Paradise by Zoroaster and to have stood in what is now Kashmar in northeastern Iran and by Zoroaster in honor of the conversion of King Vishtaspa


In Islam

A number of parallels have been drawn between Zoroastrian teachings and Islam. These parallels include the obvious similarities between Amesha Spenta and the Archangel Gabriel, who prays five times a day while covering his head during prayer, and the mention of Thamud and Iram of the pillars in the Quran. This could also point to the enormous influence of the Achaemenid Empire on the development of both religions.

The Sabeans who believed in free will accords with Zoroastrians are also mentioned in the Koran.

Muslim school views

Like the Greeks of classical antiquity, the Islamic tradition understands Zoroaster as the founding prophet of the magicians (via Aramaic, Arabic <) 333="">Majus, collective Majusya). The 11th century Cordoban Ibn Hazm (Zahiri School) claims that Kitabi of "the book" is inapplicable given the Zoroastrian claim that their books were destroyed by Alexander. Citing the authority of al-Kalbi from the 8th century, the Sunni historian al-Tabari (I, 648) reports from the 9th and 10th centuries.Century that Zaradusht bin Isfiman (a

The renegade Zaradusht eventually made his way to Balkh (present-day Afghanistan), where he converted Bishtasb (i.e. Vishtaspa) who in turn forced his subjects to adopt the religion of the magicians. Recalling other traditions, al-Tabari (I, 681–683) reports that Zaradusht accompanied a Jewish prophet to Bishtasb / Vishtaspa. Upon their arrival, Zaradusht translated the Hebrew teachings of the sage for the king and convinced him to convert to the magical religion (Tabari also notes that they had previously been Sabis).

The 12th-century Heresiograph al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya in three sects, the Kayumarthiya, the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya, among which Al-Shahrastani claims that only the last of the three were actually followers of Zoroaster. Regarding the recognition of a prophet, Zoroaster said: "They ask you how to recognize a prophet and believe that what he says is true. Tell them what he knows that others do not know and he will tell you. " even what is hidden in your nature; he will be able to tell you whatever you ask him and he will do things that others cannot. "(Namah Shat Vakhshur Zartust, .5–7. 50–54) When the Companions of Muhammad came into contact with the Zoroastrian people on the invasion of Persia and learned these teachings, they immediately came to the conclusion that Zoroaster was really a Divine Inspired One Prophet, so they gave the Zoroastrian people the same treatment as other "People of the Book".

Although the name Zoroaster is not mentioned in the Quran, he was nevertheless considered to be one of the prophets whose names were not mentioned in the Quran, for there is a verse in the Quran: "And We have sent apostles before you. There are some of them We have mentioned to you and there are others We have. " didn't mention you. "(40: 78). Accordingly, the Muslims treated the founder of Zoroastrianism as a true prophet and believed in his religion as in other inspired creeds, thus protecting the Zoroastrian religion according to prophecy. James Darmesteter remarked in the translation of Zend Avesta:" When Islam assimilated the Zoroastrians to the people of the book, it showed a rare historical sense and solved the problem of the genesis of the Avesta. "(Introduction to Vendidad. P. 69.)

Ahmadiyya view

The Ahmadiyya community regards Zoroaster as a prophet of Allah and describes the expressions of the all-good Ahura Mazda and the evil Ahriman refer only to the coexistence of forces of good and evil that enable people to exercise free will.

In Manichaeism

Manichaeism regarded Zoroaster as a figure (along with the

In the Bahá'í Faith

Zoroaster appears in the Baháʼí faith as a "manifestation of God", one of a series of prophets who gradually revealed the word of God to a gradually maturing humanity. Zoroaster thus shares a lofty station with Abraham, Moses, Krishna, Jesus, Muhammad, the Báb and the founder of the Baháʼí faith, Bahá'u'lláh. Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Baháʼí Faith in the first half of the 20th century, saw Bahá'u'lláh as the fulfillment of a post-Sassanid Zoroastrian prophecy that saw a return of the Sassanid Emperor Bahram: Shoghi Effendi also stated that Zoroastrians were about 1000 Years before Jesus lived.


In the Gathas, Zoroaster sees the human condition as a spiritual battle between aša and druj. The cardinal concept of aša - which is very nuanced and only vaguely translatable - forms the basis of all Zoroastrian doctrines, including that of Ahura Mazda (who is aša), creation (i.e. aša), existence (that is aša) and as a condition for free will.

The purpose of mankind, like that of all other creations, is to maintain and align with aša. For humanity this happens through active ethical participation in life, ritual and the exercise of constructive / good thoughts, words and deeds.

Elements of Zoroastrian philosophy came to the West through their influence on Judaism and Platonism and were identified as one of the most important early events in the development of philosophy. Among the classical Greek philosophers, Heraclitus is often referred to as being inspired by Zoroaster's thought.

In 2005, Zarathustra was ranked first in the Chronology of Philosophers in the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Zarathustra's influence continues today, in part because of the system of religious ethics he established called Mazdayasna. The word Mazdayasna is Avestan and is translated as "Worship of Wisdom / Mazda" in English. The Encyclopedia Natural History (Pliny) claims that Zoroastrians later raised the Greeks who, starting with Pythagoras, used a similar term, philosophy, or "love of wisdom" to describe the search for ultimate truth.

Zoroaster emphasized the individual's freedom to choose right or wrong, and individual responsibility for their actions. This personal decision to accept aša and avoid Druj is a personal decision and not a dictation of Ahura Mazda. For Zoroasters, we increase the good by thinking good thoughts, saying good words and doing good deeds (e.g. helping the needy, doing good works or performing good rituals), ordering aša in the world and in ourselves, to celebrate the divine , and we come one step closer on the never-ending path to Frashokereti. So we are not the slaves or servants of Ahura Mazda, but we can make a personal choice to be co-workers, thereby perfecting the world as Saoshyants ("world perfecters") and ourselves, and eventually attaining the status of Ashavan ( "Master of Asha").


Although some recent depictions of Zoroaster show that he was performing a legendary deed, the depictions generally only present him in white robes (which are also worn by modern-day Zoroastrian priests). He is often seen holding a baresman (Avestan; Middle Persian Barsom), widely considered to be another symbol of the priesthood, or holding a book that can be interpreted as the Avesta. Alternatively, he appears with a club, the Varza - usually stylized as a steel rod crowned by a bull's head - that priests carry during their installation ceremony. In other depictions he appears with a raised hand and a thoughtfully raised finger, as if he wanted to make a point.

Zoroaster is rarely depicted as looking directly at the viewer. instead, he seems to look up slightly, as if pleading. Zoroaster is almost always depicted with a beard, along with other factors that have similarities to portraits of Jesus.

from the 19th century. A common variant of the Zoroaster pictures comes from a rock wall carving from the Sassanid period. In this depiction at Taq-e Bostan, a figure is seen directing the coronation of Ardashir I or II. The figure stands on a lotus, with a baresman in hand and a halo around his head. Until the 1920s, this figure was generally regarded as a representation of Zoroaster, but in recent years more often as a representation of Mithra. One of the most famous European depictions of Zoroaster is the figure in Raphael's 1509 The School of Athens. In it, Zoroaster and Ptolemy are discussing in the lower right corner. The Prophet holds a star-studded globe in his hand.

  • Zoroastrian devotional art depicting the founder of the religion with white clothing and a long beard

  • Representation of Zoroaster in [it], an alchemy manuscript published in Germany in the late 17th or early 18th century and pseudoepigraphically Zoroaster

  • An image of Zoroaster on mirrored etched glass in the Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Taft, Iran

western civilization

The School of Athens: a gathering of Renaissance artists under the guise of ancient philosophers in an idealized classical interior with the scene in which Zoroaster holds a planet or cosmos.

In classical antiquity

The Greeks - in the Hellenistic sense of the term - had an understanding of Zoroaster as it was expressed by Plutarch, Diog enes Laertius and Agathias, who essentially regarded him as the "prophet and founder of the religion of the Iranian peoples," Beck notes that " the rest was mostly fantasy ". Zoroaster was settled in the ancient past, six to seven millennia before the Common Era, and as King of Bactria or Babylonians (or teacher of Babylonians) and with a biography typical of a Neopythagorean sage, i.e. with a mission, ascetic retreat and enlightenment precede. First mentioned in connection with dualism, in Moralia Plutarch presents Zoroaster as "Zaratras" without realizing that both are the same, and he is described as "the teacher of Pythagoras".

Zoroaster has also been described as a wizarding astrologer - the creator of both magic and astrology. From this image a "mass of literature" ascribed to him was derived, which brought the world into circulation from the 3rd century BCE to the end of antiquity and beyond.

The language of this literature was predominantly Greek, although at one stage or another various parts of it passed through Aramaic. Syriac, Coptic, or Latin. Its ethos and cultural matrix were also Hellenistic, and "the mapping of literature to sources beyond this political, cultural, and temporal framework represents a commandment of authority and a source of legitimation for" alien wisdom ". Zoroaster and the magicians did not write it, but their names have approved. "The attributions of" exotic "names (not limited to magicians) conferred an" authority on a distant and revealing wisdom ".

Among the works ascribed to "Zoroaster" are a treatise on nature (Peri physeos), which originally consisted of four volumes (ie papyrus rolls). The frame is a retelling of Plato's myth of He that Zoroaster takes the place of the original hero. While Porphyry imagined listening to Pythagoras Zoroaster's discourse, On Nature has the sun in the middle position as it was understood in the 3rd century In Plato's 4th century BC version, the sun was second above the moon. Colotes accused Plato of plagiarizing Zoroaster, and Heraclides Ponticus wrote a text entitled Zoroaster based on his perception of "Zoroastrian" philosophy to express his disagreement with Plato in na Tural philosophy. As for the substance and content of On Nature, only two facts are known: that it was replete with astrological speculation and that necessity (ananké) was mentioned by name and that it was in the air.

Pliny the Elder names Zoroaster as the inventor of magic (Natural History 30.2.3). "However, a principle of the division of labor seems to have spared Zoroaster most of the responsibility for introducing the dark arts into the Greek and Roman worlds." This "dubious honor" went to the "fabulous magician Ostanes, to whom most of the pseudo-pigraphic magical literature has been attributed". Although Pliny calls him the inventor of magic, the Roman does not offer him a "magician personality". Furthermore, the little "magical" doctrine ascribed to Zoroaster is actually very late, with the earliest example dating from the 14th century.

The association with astrology according to Roger Beck was based on its Babylonian origin, and Zoroaster's Greek name was initially identified with star worship (astrothytes "star sacrifice") and with the zo- even as a living star. Later, an even more elaborate mytho etymology developed: Zoroaster died from the living (zo-) flow (ro-) of the fire of the star (astr-) that he himself had called, and even that the stars had killed him in revenge for it held back by him.

The alternative Greek name for Zoroaster was Zaratras or Zaratas / Zaradas / Zaratos. Pythagoreans regarded mathematicians as having studied with Zoroaster in Babylonia. Lydus writes in On the Months the creation of the seven-day week "to the Babylonians in the circle of Zoroaster and Hyst to aspes," and who did that because there were seven planets. The Suda chapter on astronomy states that the Babylonians learned their astrology from Zoroaster. Lucian of Samosata, in Mennipus 6, reports that he has decided to travel to Babylon "to ask one of the magicians, Zoroaster's disciple and successor, for his opinion".

While the division according to Zoroaster / Astrology and Ostanes / Magic is "overly simplified, the descriptions at least show what the works are not"; they were not expressions of Zoroastrian teachings, they were not even expressions of what the Greeks and Romans "imagined" the teachings of Zoroastrianism to be different authors who have written under each name.

Almost all Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha are now lost and of the attested texts - with only one exception - only fragments have survived. Plinys 2nd - or the 3rd century attribution of "two million lines" to Zoroaster suggests that (even if exaggerations and duplicates are taken into account) an impressive pseudo-pigraphic corpus once existed in the library of Alexandria. One can assume that this corpus is a pseudepigrapha, since no one before Pliny referred to the literature of "Zoroaster" and the authority of Galen of Pergamon from the 2nd century and from a commentator from the 6th century Aristotle relates that the acquisitions guidelines of well-stocked royal libraries have created a market for the production of manuscripts by famous and ancient authors.

The exception to the fragmentary evidence (i.e., repetition of passages in works by other authors) is in full The Coptic treatise entitled Zostrianos (after the first-person narrator) discovered in the Nag Hammadi library in 1945. A three-line cryptogram in the colophons after the 131-page treatise identifies the work as "Words of Truth from Zostrianos. God of Truth [Logos]. Words from Zoroaster." The appeal to a "God of Truth" may seem Zoroastrian, but otherwise there is "nothing noticeably Zoroastrian" about the text and "in content, style, ethos, and intent its affinities are wholly bound up with the congeners among the Gnostics tracts."

Another work that circulated under the name "Zoroaster" was the Asteroskopita (or Apotelesmatika), which comprised five volumes (ie papyrus scrolls). The title and fragments suggest that it was an astrological manual, "albeit a very diverse one for making predictions". A third text attributed to Zoroaster is On Virtue of Stones (Peri-Lithon-Timion), of which nothing is known other than its extent (a volume) and which Pseudo-Zoroaster sang (from which Cumont and Bidez conclude that it was in verse). . Numerous other fragments preserved in the works of other authors are ascribed to "Zoroaster" but the titles of these books are not mentioned.

Aside from these pseudo-pigraphic texts, some authors have drawn on some truly Zoroastrian ideas. The oracles of Hystaspes by "Hystaspes", another prominent magical pseudo-author, are a series of prophecies that differ from other Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha in that they are based on real Zoroastrian sources. Some allusions are more difficult to assess: in the same text that attributes the invention of magic to Zoroaster, Pliny states that Zoroaster laughed on the day he was born, although Pliny had sworn in the name of Hercules earlier that no child would ever do so before the 40th day since he was born. This notion of Zoroaster's laughter (like that of "two million verses") also appears in the texts of the true Zoroastrian tradition of the 9th to 11th centuries, and for a time it was believed that the origin of these myths lay in indigenous sources. Pliny also reports that Zoroaster's head pulsed so strongly that his hand would repel when placed on it, an indication of his future wisdom. However, the Iranians were just as familiar with the Greek writers, and the origins of other descriptions are clear. For example, Plutarch's description of his dualistic theologies reads as follows: "Others call the better of this one god and his rival a demon, such as Zoroaster the Magus, who lived five thousand years before the siege of Troy. He called the one Horomazes and the one other Areimanius ".

In the post-classical era

Zoroaster was known as a sage, magician, and miracle worker in post-classical Western culture. Although almost nothing was known about his ideas by the end of the 18th century, his name was already associated with lost ancient wisdom.

The earliest references to Zoroaster recorded in English literature are found in the writings of the physician-philosopher Sir Thomas Browne, who in his Religio Medici (1643)

claimed, I believe, that besides Zoroastrians there were divers who wrote before Moses who nevertheless suffered the common fate of time.

In his The Garden of Cyrus (1658) Browne's study of com parative religion led him to speculate.

And if Zoroastrians were either Cham, Chus, or Mizraim, they were early professors in them who (as Pliny provides) left a work of agriculture behind.

The Oxford English Dictionary credits the English poet Lord Byron as the first to allude to the Zoroastrian religion in 1811 when he said:

I would be more of a Paulican, Manichaean, Spinozist, Gentile, Pyrrohonian, Zoroastrian than any of the seventy-two vicious sects who tear each other to pieces out of love for the Lord.

During the Enlightenment writers like Voltaire promoted the study of Zoroastrianism believing that it was a form of rational deism preferable to Christianity. Zoroaster was the subject of the 1749 opera, Zoroastre, by Jean-Philippe Rameau. With the translation of the Avesta by Abraham Anquetil-Duperron, the western science of Zoroastrianism began.

An early 19th century depiction of Zoroaster, derived from the portrait of a figure that appears in a 4th century sculpture in Taq-e Bostan, southwest Iran.

In E. TA Hoffmann's novel Klein Zaches, called Zinnober (1819), the magician Prosper Alpanus states that Professor Zoroaster was his teacher.

In his pioneering work Also Spoke Zarathustra (So Spoke Zarathustra) (1885) the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche uses the native Iranian name Zarathustra, which has a significant meaning as he had used the well-known Greco-Latin name in his earlier works. It is believed that Nietzsche made a characterization of Zarathustra as a mouthpiece for Nietzsche's own ideas against morality.

he finds. The large-scale tone poem by the Austrian composer Richard Strauss Also Spoke Zarathustra (1896) was inspired by Nietzsche's book.

The Irish poet William Butler Yeats (1865–1939) and his wife stated that Zoroaster was "automatic writing".

to have contacted. A sculpture by Zoroaster von, depicting ancient Persian legal wisdom and dating from 1896, towers over the Appellate Division Courthouse of New York State on East 25th Street and Madison Avenue in Manhattan. A sculpture of Zoroaster appears with other prominent religious figures on the south side of the exterior of the Rockefeller Memorial Chapel on the University of Chicago campus.

The protagonist and narrator of Gore Vidal's 1981 novel The Creation is described as the grandson of Zoroaster. Zarathustra, the mythical hero in Giannina Braschi's 2011 dramatic novel United States of the Banana, joins forces with Shakespeare's Hamlet.

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