What is Horace's greatest poem

Odes (Horace) - Odes (Horace)

The Odes (Latin: Carmina ) are a collection in four books of Latin poetry by Horace. The format and style of the Horatian Ode have since been emulated by other poets. Books 1 to 3 were published in 23 BC. Published. A fourth book, consisting of 15 poems, was published in 13 BC. Published.

The Odes were developed as a deliberate imitation of the short lyric poetry of Greek originals - Pindar, Sappho and Alcaeus are some of Horace's role models. His genius lay in applying these older forms to the social life of Rome in the age of Augustus. The Odes cover a range of topics - love, friendship, wine, religion, morality, patriotism; eulogy poems addressed to Augustus and his relatives; and verses written on a variety of subjects and events, including the uncertainty of life, the cultivation of calm and contentment, and the observance of moderation or the "golden mean".

The Odes have traditionally been viewed by English-speaking scholars as purely literary works. Recent evidence from a Horatian scholar suggests that it may have been intended as performance art, a Latin reinterpretation of the Greek lyric song. The Roman writer Petronius, who wrote less than a century after Horace's death, noticed this Curiosa felicitas (studied spontaneity) the Odes ( Satyricon 118). The English poet Alfred Lord Tennyson stated that the Odes "Five-word long jewels that will sparkle forever on the stretched index finger of all times" ( The Princess , Part II, l.355).

Book 1

Book 1 consists of 38 poems. The sentence Nunc est bibendum , "Now is the time to drink!" Is the opening of I.37.

I.1, Maecenas atavis edite regibus ... - Dedication of the first three books of the Odes to Maecenas (Horace's Patron) -
Every man is ruled by his ruling passion: the Olympic charioteer, the politician, the merchant, the husband, the merchant, the man of pleasure, the soldier, and the hunter. To win the title of lyric poet is all Horace wants.

I.2, Iam satis terris nivis atque dirae ... - For Augustus the liberator and the hope of the state -
The theme of this ode is the overflow of the Tiber, which reminds the poet of the flood of Deucalion. He imagines that the disaster is caused by the wrath of Ilia (the wife of Tiber), the civil wars and the murder of Julius Caesar. Augustus is invoked as Mercury in human form to save the empire.

I.3, Sic te diva potens Cypri .. - After Virgil, departure for Greece -
The ode begins with a prayer for the safe journey from Virgil to Athens, suggesting the courage of the earliest seafarers and the daring of men in overcoming the difficulties of nature.

I.4, Solvitur acris hiems ... - A hymn to spring -
The changing season warns us of the brevity of life. Horace urges his friend Sestius - CV summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam (The short sum of life forbids us from the distant hope to hold on ).

I.5, Quis multa gracilis te puer in pink ... - Of the flirt Pyrrha, who is as faithful as the wind or the sea and whose imagination no lover can hold onto.

I.6, Winner of Scriberis Vario fortis et hostium ... - Horace pleads for his inability to sing the praises of M. Vipsanius Agrippa, the respected Roman commander, worthily.

I.7, Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon aut Mytilenen ... - Most beautiful spot , oh Plancus, is Tibur - there or wherever you are, drown your worries in wine.

I.8, Lydia, dic, per omnis te deos oro ... - For Lydia, who transformed Sybaris from a sturdy athlete into a lover in love.

I.9, Vides ut alta sta nive candidum ... - Winters without commandments make us happy inside -
(on loan from an original by Alcaeus) - To Thaliarchus. The snow is deep and the frost is sharp - pile up the stove and bring out old wine - leave everything else to the gods.

I.10, Mercuri, facunde nepos Atlantis ... - Hymn to Mercury -
Mercury is addressed as the god of eloquence and the promoter of human civilization; as messenger of the gods and inventor of the lyre; artisanal and cunning; and the ladder of souls to the underworld.

I.11, Tu ne quaesieris ... - Carpe Diem ! -
The poet tries to dissuade Leuconoe from observing the false arts of astrologers and fortune tellers. It is in vain to ask about the future - let's enjoy the present for that is all we can command. It ends with the famous line: Carpe Diem, Quam Minimum Credula Postero ( Use the day and trust as little as possible tomorrow).

I.12, Quem virum aut heroa lyra ... - The praise of Augustus -
The poet praises Augustus by associating him with gods and heroes and respected Romans of earlier days brings .

I.13, Cum do, Lydia ... - jealousy -
Addressed to Lydia - the poet contrasts the misery of jealousy with the happiness that is secured by persistence in love.

I.14, O navis, speaker in mare te novi fluctus ... - The ship of state -
Horace refers to a time when the Roman state was thrown and almost destroyed by eternal storms. He admonishes it to beware of new dangers and to stay safe in the harbor.

I.15, Pastor cum traheret ... - The Prophecy of Nereus -
While Paris rushes from Sparta to Troy with Helen, calmed down Nereus lifts the winds and prophesies - Ilium's downfall is inevitable.

I.16, O matre pulchra filia pulchrior ... - An apology -
The poet has offended a lady by the moderate expressions of his verse; he is now asking for forgiveness for the mistake. He describes the sad effects of unbridled anger and tells them to hold back theirs.

I.17, Velox amoenum saepe Lucretilem ... - An invitation to Tyndaris to enjoy the delights of the land -
Horace invites Tyndaris to his Sabine farm and describes the atmosphere of calm and security there, blessed with the favorable protection of Faunus and the rural deities.

I.18, Nullam, Vare, Sacra Vite Prius Seueris Arborem ... - The praise of wine and the ill effects of intemperance.

I.19, Mater saeua Cupidinum ... - The poet's love for Glycera

I.20, Vile potabis modicis Sabinum cantharis ... - An invitation to Maecenas -
You will drink the poor Sabine wine in humble cups when you visit the poet.

I.21, Dianam tenerae dicite virgins ... - Hymn in praise of Latona and her children, Diana and Apollo

I.22, Integer vitae scelerisque purus ... - Righteousness of life and free from malice -
Addressed to Aristius Fuscus - begins as a solemn praise of the honest life and ends in a pseudo-heroic love song for sweet laughter "Lalage" (cf. II.5.16, propertius IV.7.45).

I.23, Vitas hinnuleo me similis, Chloë ... - Don't be afraid, Chloe, and avoid me Not.

I.24, Quis desiderio sit pudor aut mode ... - To Virgil - A lawsuit for the death of Quinctilius

I.25, Parcius iunctas quatiunt fenestras ... - Lydia, yours Stimuli are over -
Horace mocks Lydia with her approaching old age and lack of admirers.

I.26, Musis amicus tristitiam et metus tradam ... - In praise of Aelius Lamia -
The poet asks the Muses to inspire him to sing the praises of Aelius Lamia, a man recognized for his achievements in the war.

I.27, Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis ... - Let them moderation govern -
On a Wine party Horace tries to hold back his quarrelsome companions - he asks Megilla's brother from Opus to confide the object of his affection.

I.28, Te maris et terrae numeroque ... - death, the fate of all -
Dialogue between a sailor and the spirit of the philosopher Archytas about death, universal fate and the duty of giving the rites of burial to the dead.

I.29, Icci, beatis nunc Arabum invites you ... - The scholar who became an adventurer -
A remark addressed to Iccius about his intention to abandon philosophy and join Felix's expedition to Arabia.

I.30, oh Venus regina Cnidi Paphique ... - A prayer to Venus -
Venus is called to leave her beloved Cyprus for a while and with her presence to honor the temple that was prepared for her in the house of Glycera.

I.31, Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem vates? ... - Prayer to Apollo about the consecration of his temple.

I.32, Poscimus, si quid vacui sub umbra ... - Invocation of the lyre -
The poet speaks his lyre and mixes with the speech the praise of the Greek poet Alcaeus.

I.33, Albi, ne doleas plus nimio memor ... - The faithless Glycera -
A consolation for the contemporary poet Tibullus over a lost love.

I.34, Parcus deorum Cultor et Infrequent ... - The poet's conversion from error -
After hearing thunder in a cloudless sky, Horace renounces his earlier error and declares his belief in Jupiter, Fortuna and the oversight providence of the gods.

I.35, oh Diva, gratum quae regis Antium ... - Hymn to Fortuna -
The poet invokes happiness as an omnipotent goddess. He begs them to keep Augustus on his distant expeditions and to save the state from ruinous civil wars.

I.36, Et ture et fidibus iuvat - An ode of congratulations to Plotius Numida on his safe return from Spain, where he had served under Augustus in a war against the Cantabrians.

I.37, Nunc est bibendum ... - Now is the time to drink! -
An ode of joy in Augustus' victory at Actium, the conquest of Alexandria and the death of Cleopatra. The tone of triumph over the fallen queen is softened by an homage to her great pride and determined courage.

I.38, Persicos odi, puer, apparatus ... - Away with oriental luxury! -
Horace instructs his companion to make the simplest preparations for his entertainment.

Book 2

Book 2 consists of 20 poems.

II.1, Motum ex Metello consule civicum ... - To Asinius Pollio, the writer of the tragedy, who is now writing a history of the civil wars. A complaint for the slaughter caused by the conflicts the Romans had with their fellow citizens.

II.2, Nullus argento color est avaris ... - The wise use of money -
To Sallustius Crispus (nephew of the historian Sallust). The love of profit grows through forbearance. The moderate man is the real king.

II.3, Aequam memento rebus in arduis ... - The wisdom of moderation , the certainty of death -
To Quintus Dellius. Let us enjoy our lives while we can, for death will soon free us all equally from our possessions.

II.4, Ne sit ancillae tibi amor pudori ... - To Xanthias Phoceus - Horace encourages his friend to love Phyllis, his slave.

II.5, Nondum subacta ferre iugum valet ... - Not yet! -
To a friend about his love for Lalage - The girl his friend loves is not yet marriageable and still too young to give back his passion - Soon it will be different.

II.6, Septimi, Gadis aditure mecum et ... - At the Most beautiful is Tibur - But Tarentum is also fair -
For Horace's friend, the Roman knight Septimius, who would go with him to the end of the world. The poet prays that Tibur could be the resting place of his old age; or, if this is not the case, he chooses the country around Tarentum.

II.7, O saepe mecum tempus in ultimum ... - A joyful return -
An ode of congratulations to Pompey Varus, once a comrade of the poet in the army of Brutus, on his restoration of civil rights.

II.8, Ulla si iuris tibi peierati ... - The vicious charms of Barine -
About Barine's utter faithlessness, which Heaven will not punish - in fact, her beauty and allure keep on growing.

II.9, Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos ... - A truce, Valgius! -
To C. Valgius Rufus about the death of his son Mystes. Since all problems have their natural end, don't grieve too much. Let us rather celebrate the last victories of Augustus.

II.10, Rectius vives, Licini, neque altum ... - The golden mean -
To L. Licinius Murena. The temperate life is the perfect life.

II.11, Quid bellicosus Cantaber et Scythes ... - Enjoy life wisely! -
Horace advises his friend Quinctius Hirpinus in a semi-playful tone to enjoy life carefully and not to get angry.

II.12, Nolis longa ferae bella Numantiae ... - The charms of Licymnia -
Horace cites the inability of his poetry to record the wars of the Romans or the battles of mythology. He advises Maecenas to write the story of Caesar's campaigns in prose, while he himself will sing the praises of Licymnia (some commentators say Licymnia was another name for Terentia, the wife of Maecenas).

II.13, Ille et nefasto te posuit the ... - A narrow escape -
This ode owes its origin to Horace's close flight from sudden death by the fall of a tree on his Sabine estate. (The same event is also referred to in Odes, II.17, line 28 and III.4, line 27.) After expressing his indignation at the person who planted the tree, he moves on to a general reflection the uncertainty of life and areas over from darker Proserpine.

II.14, Eheu Fugaces, Postume ... - Inevitable death -
Addressed to Postumus, a rich but stingy friend. Nothing can stop the progress of decay and death, the common fate of all on earth. Men accumulate wealth only to have someone else squander it.

II.15, Iam pauca aratro iugera regiae ... - Against luxury -
Horace describes the extravagant luxury that prevailed among the rich and praises the simplicity and frugality of the ancient Romans.

II.16, Otium divos rogat in patent ... - Satisfaction with our lot the only real happiness -
All men yearn after rest that riches cannot buy. Contentment, not wealth, makes real happiness.

II.17, Cur me querellis exanimas tuis? ... - To Maecenas on his recovery from illness -
Horace says that the same day must necessarily bring both deaths - your horoscopes are wonderfully similar, and they have both been saved from the utmost malice.

II.18, Non ebur neque aureum ... - The vanity of wealth -
The poet, content with his own moderate ability, grumbles against the blindness of avarice - for the same goal awaits all people.

II.19, Bacchum in remotis carmina rupibus ... - Hymn to Bacchus -
The poet celebrates Bacchus as almighty, conquering and lord of creation; to whom the earth, the sea and all nature obey; To whom the humans are subject, and the giants and monsters of Orcus are all struck down.

II.20, Non usitata nec tenui ferar ... - The poet prophesies his own immortality -
Transformed into a swan, the poet will fly away from people's homes and not need the empty honors of a grave.

Book 3

"Justum et tenacem suggestiti virum" - "a man of righteous and steadfast intention" from Horace 's Odes , III.3, on the headstone of Elliot Charles Bovill, Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements, in Fort Canning Green, Singapore

Ancient editor Porphyrion read the first six odes of this book as a single sequence united by a common moral purpose and addressed to all of Rome's patriotic citizens. These six "Roman odes", as they have been called since then (by HT Plüss 1882), share a common counter and together thematize the glorification of Roman virtues and the associated glory of Rome under Augustus. Ode III.2 contains the famous line "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" (It is sweet and honorable to die for one's own country). Ode III.5 Caelo tonantem credidimus Jovem specifically identifies Augustus as the new Jupiter who is supposed to restore the valor of earlier Roman heroes in modern Rome such as Marcus Atilius Regulus, whose story occupies the second half of the poem.

Book 3 consists of 30 poems.

III.1, Odi profanum vulgus et arceo ... - About happiness -
Philosophy is a secret that the uninitiated crowd cannot understand. The worthlessness of wealth and rank. The praise of satisfaction. Care cannot be banished by changing the scene.

III.2, Angustam amice pauperiem pati ... - About virtue -
Horace extols the virtue of perseverance and bravery in the struggle for one's own country, integrity in politics and religious honor.

III.3, Iustum et tenacem propriti virum ... - About integrity and perseverance -
The merit of integrity and determination: the examples of Pollux, Hercules and Romulus. Juno's speech to the gods about the fate of Rome.

III.4, Descende caelo et dic age tibia ... - With wise advice and grace -
The Muses have guarded and advised Horace since his youth. They do the same to Augustus and call on him to show mercy and kindness. The evils of violence and arrogance, on the other hand, are exemplified by the titans and giants and others.

III.5, Caelo tonantem credidimus Iovem ... - To Augustus - On virtue and steadfastness -
Augustus is recognized as god on earth for his submission to the British and Parthians. The nefarious actions of the forces of Crassus (who married the Parthians after being captured) are contrasted by the noble example of Regulus (who was released from Carthage to negotiate a peace but kept the Senate from doing so and then returned to Carthage to be there to be tortured death).

III.6, Delicta maiorum inmeritus lues ... - Piety & Chastity - Return to the old morality! -
Denouncing the prevailing domestic immorality and disdain for religious institutions, Horace earnestly urges a swift return to the simpler and purer manners of antiquity.

III.7, Quid fles, asteria, quem tibi candidi ... - Persistence, asteria! -
Horace comforts Asteria over the absence of her lover Gyges and warns her not to be unfaithful to her own vows.

III.8, Martis caelebs quid agam Kalendis ... - Happy Anniversary -
Horace invites Maecenas to celebrate with him the feast of the Calendar of March (the feast of the matrons), which was also the anniversary of his narrow escape from sudden death by a falling tree.

III.9, Donec gratus eram tibi ... - The reconciliation of two lovers -
Often referred to as the "amoeba" ode (from the Greek αμείβω - for exchange), it describes a quarrel between two lovers and their reconciliation in a graceful dialogue.

III.10, Extremum Tanain si biberes, Lyce ... - A lover's complaint -
Horace warns Lyce that he can't stand her rudeness forever.

III.11, Mercuri, - nam te docilis magistro ... - Take the warning, Lyde, from the Danaids! -
To Mercury - Horace asks the god to teach him a tune that will overcome Lyde's unkindness. The ode ends with the story of the daughters of Danaus and their downfall in the underworld.

III.12, Miserarum est neque amori dare ludum ... - Unhappy Neo-Bude - Joyless
is the life of Neobule, always under the watchful eye of a strict guardian. Only thoughts of handsome Hebrew distract their minds from their problems.

III.13, O fons Bandusiae splendidior vitro ... - Oh, well of the Bandusia! -
Tomorrow a sacrifice will be made to the well of Bandusia, the refreshing coolness of which will be offered to the flocks and flocks and which is now immortalized in verse.

III.14, Herculis ritu modo dictus, o plebs ... - The Return of Augustus -
Horace announces a feast day after Augustus' return from Spain (approx. 24 BC), on which he had subjected the violent Cantabri.

III.15, Uxor pauperis Ibyci ... - Chloris, act your age! -
Horace mocks Chloris with her attempts to appear young and with her frivolous life while really an old woman.

III.16, Inclusam Danaen turris aenea ... - Satisfaction is real wealth -
Gold is omnipotent, but its possession brings care and concern. True satisfaction is to be satisfied with little, like Horace with his Sabine farm.

III.17, Aeli vetusto nobilis from Lamo ... - Prepare for storms tomorrow -
To Aelius Lamia - The crow predicts a stormy day tomorrow - Collect firewood while you can and spend the day at the festival.

III.18, Fauns, Nympharum fugientum amator ... - Hymn to the Faunus -
Horace asks the Faunus to bless his flocks and fields, because when the Faunus is around, the whole landscape is happy.

III.19, Quantum distances from Inacho ... - Invitation to a banquet -
Horace invites Telephus to give up his historical research for a time and to attend a banquet in honor of Murena with him.

III.20, Non vides quanto moveas periclo ... - The rivals -
Horace humorously describes a competition between Pyrrhus and a virgin for the exclusive greetings from Nearchus.

III.21, O nata mecum consule Manlio ... - To a wine glass -
Horace, preparing to entertain his friend, the speaker M. Valerius Messala Corvinus, sings about the many virtues of wine.

III.22, Montium custos nemorumque Virgin - Diana -
Horace dedicates a jaw to Diana and swears an annual sacrifice to the goddess.

III.23, Caelo supinas si tuleris Manus - Humble sacrifices offered piously -
Horace assures the rustic Phidyle that the favor of the gods is not obtained through costly offerings, but through simple offerings such as salted food offered with real feeling.

III.24, Intactis opulentior ... - The Curse of Mammon -
Boundless wealth cannot banish fear or avert death. A simple life like that of the Scythians is the healthiest and best. Strict laws are required to curb contemporary luxury and indulgence.

III.25, Quo me, Bacche, rapis tui ... - To Bacchus in honor of Augustus -
Horace imagines being taken by Bacchus in the middle of the woods and wilderness to celebrate Augustus' praise in a distant cave.

III.26, Vixi puellis nuper idoneus ... - The triumphs of love are over -
Despised by the haughty Chloe, the poet leaves the arms of love like a discharged soldier. But he asks Venus as a last request that his humble love not go unavenged.

III.27, Impios parrae recinentis omen ... - Galatea, be careful! -
Addressed to Galatea, who tries to dissuade the poet from the journey she planned to take during the stormy season. He asks them to be careful so that the mild aspect of the deceptive sky does not mislead them - for lack of caution Europe has been dragged across the sea.

III.28, Festo quid potius die ... - In honor of Neptune -
An invitation to Lyde to visit the poet at the festival of Neptune and to drink wine and song with him.

III.29, Descendants of Tyrrhena regum, tibi ... - Invitation to Maecenas -
Horace invites Maecenas to leave the smoke and the wealth and bustle of Rome and visit him on his Sabine farm. He asks him to remind himself that we must live wisely and well in the present because the future is uncertain.

III.30, Exegi monumentum aere perennius ... - The immortal glory of the poet -
In this final poem, Horace confidently predicts his continued fame as the first and greatest of Rome's lyric poets. He claims: Exegi monumentum aere perennius (I made a monument that is more permanent than bronze).

Book 4

Horace published 13 BC. A fourth Odenbuch with 15 poems. Horace recognized the gap in time with the first few words of the collection's opening poem: Intermissa, Venus, Diu / Rursus Bella Moves (Venus, you are returning to long interrupted battles).

IV.1, Intermissa, Venus, diu ... - Venus, Forbear! -
Horace complains that when he is old he is harassed with new wishes by the cruel goddess of love: he longs for Ligurinus. He asks her to turn to a more youthful and worthy subject, his friend Paulus Maximus.

IV.2, Pindarum quisquis studies aemulari ... - Not for me to sing about Augustus! -
Horace was asked by Iulus Antonius (son of Marc Antony and stepson of Augustus 'sister Octavia) to sing of Augustus' victories in a Pindarian ode. Horace refuses because he has no talent and asks Iulus to write the poem himself.

IV.3, Quem tu, Melpomene, semel ... - Melpomene, muse of poetry -
The muse Melpomene Horace attributes his poetic inspiration and the honor he enjoys as a lyric poet of Rome.

IV.4, Qualem ministrum fulminis alitem ... - In praise of Drusus, Augustus' younger stepson -
(A companion to Ode IV.14, who praises Tiberius). This ode praises Drusus, the younger son of Empress Livia, for his victory over the Raeti and Vindelici. Drusus is compared to a young eagle and lion. His stepfather Augustus is also commended for raising him to be great.

IV.5, Divis places bonis, optume Romulae ... - Augustus, return! -
Horace asks Augustus to return to Rome and describes the peace and good order of the principality under his rule.

IV.6, Diving, quem proles Niobea magnae ... - Invocation of Apollo -
In 17 BC Chr. Commissioned Augustus Horace, the Carmen Saeculare to write , a hymn to be sung at the Saecular Festival. This ode is an invocation to Apollo and asks for help and inspiration for this important task.

IV.7, Diffugere nives, talk iam ... - The lesson of the return of spring -
An ode to the same spring theme as I.4 - addressed to his friend Torquatus. Although the earth renews itself and the waning moon grows again, death is the end of human life. Then let's make the most of our days while they last.

IV.8, Donarem pateras grataque Commodus ... - In praise of poetry -
This ode was written to C. Marcius Censorinus and probably sent as a gift from Saturn. Horace would give bronze vases or tripods or precious stones of Greek art, but he doesn't have these. What he has to give instead is the immortality of a poem.

IV.9, Ne forte credas interitura quae ... - In praise of Lollius -
As in IV.8, Horace promises immortality through his verses, this time Lollius, a man of wisdom and integrity.

IV.10, O crudelis adhuc et Veneris ... - Beauty is fleeting -
An ode to a beautiful boy, Ligurinus, and the inevitability of old age.

IV.11, Est mihi nonum superantis annum ... - A happy birthday -
An invitation to Phyllis to celebrate Maecenas' birthday on Horace's Sabine farm.

IV.12, Iam veris comites ... - The joys of spring -
Addressed to Virgil (although not necessarily the poet). The breeze and the birds have returned - an invitation to a spring festival - the poet agrees to deliver the wine if Virgil brings a box of perfumes.

IV.13, Audivere, Lyce, di mea vota ... - retaliation -
Horace mocks Lyce, who is now getting old, at her desperate attempts to look young and fascinating.

IV.14, Quae cura patrum quaeve Quiritium ... - In praise of Tiberius, Augustus' older stepson -
(A companion to Ode IV.4, praising Drusus.) Horace honors the courage and exploits of Tiberius, the elder son of Empress Livia, through his victories over the tribes of the Rhaetian Alps. Then he praises Augustus, whom he extols as the glory of war, the defense of the Romans and Italy, and the undisputed ruler of the world.

IV.15, Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui ... - The praise of Augustus -
Horace records the victories of Augustus in Songs on - Peace, good order, the setting of public morals, the expanded glory of the Roman name abroad, and safety and security happiness at home.

See also


External links