Where did Spinoza live in Amsterdam

Baruch de Spinoza: philosopher and lens grinder

In what environment was Spinoza born?

The 17th century was the golden age of the Netherlands. The trade with the colonies brought a lot of money into the pockets of the merchants and shipowners, there was a climate of generosity in which science and art - just think of painters like Rembrandt and Vermeer - could develop to their full potential. In this world of abundance, Baruch de Spinoza lived his humble life, which was entirely devoted to thought.

Born into a wealthy Jewish merchant family in Amsterdam on November 24, 1632, he enjoyed a classical Jewish education. But tradition and belief were shaken by reading philosophical and scientific works. Above all, René Descartes, the founder of modern philosophy and rationalism emphasized on reason, exerted a great influence on the young man. Spinoza dealt with his principles in "Renati Descartes principiorum philosophiae pars I et II". But by the time he was working on it, he was no longer living in his hometown of Amsterdam: in 1656, just 21 years old, he was expelled from the Jewish community because of his "heresy" and banned from the city by the magistrate.

Was Spinoza intimidated by forced exile?

Spinoza was a free spirit who did not want anything or anyone to bend his thinking. Of course, he could have given in to the clashes in Amsterdam and stayed with his wealthy family. But he accepted the displacement, the loneliness and also the poverty in order to preserve his spiritual freedom. He moved several times within the Netherlands and did not find a permanent home until 1669 in The Hague. He earned his living by grinding glasses.

Why didn't Spinoza go to university?

Even then, hardly anyone could make a living from philosophy, except as a professor. For many others, the offer made by the Palatinate Elector in 1674 would have come at just the right time. But Spinoza turned down the call to the chair of philosophy at Heidelberg University. He knew about the limitations imposed on philosophy at the universities by theology and did not want to conform there either.

What effect did the philosopher have?

Spinoza certainly had admirers among contemporaries; he not only wrote for the drawer and was in contact with other thinkers. But he never got the recognition he deserved. He remained controversial throughout his life and had to accept bad abuse. When his "Theological-Political Treatise", published anonymously in 1670, was banned, he withdrew in disappointment.

Which religious currents did Spinoza establish?

Pantheism. In his most important work, the "Ethics" (Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata) of 1674, Spinoza took the view that God and the substance of all things created by him and from himself are identical with the universe. In doing so, he denied the valid doctrine of the personality of God, which was interpreted as a total denial of God. In reality Spinoza made a unique contribution to that philosophical-theological worldview according to which the divine exists in all things.

Spinoza died of pulmonary tuberculosis on February 21, 1677. Since he was buried in a mass grave, no one knows where this great European thinker and free spirit found his final resting place.

How does Spinoza's philosophy relate to religion?

“I don't know how to teach philosophy without disturbing traditional religion. The goal of philosophy is solely truth, the goal of faith solely obedience and piety. "

“The urge to spread the divine religion among the people sank into the dirt, and the house of God became a theater in which one no longer heard teachers but crierers. They no longer wanted to teach people, but to present themselves, and now used the church as a platform to attack those who think differently. "

Did you know that …

Spinoza, who inherited a trade business in debt from his father, who subsequently refused the inheritance in order to evade creditors?

Spinoza did not accept the pension of the French King Louis XIV because the condition attached to it, to dedicate his next work to the Sun King, seemed to him to be too much of a concession?

Spinoza's "Theological-Political Treatise" prepared modern biblical criticism?