What happened to Atatuerks Turkey

Ataturk's Life - Until 1919

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was born in Saloniki in 1881. The paternal grandfather, Hafız Ahmet Efendi, was one of the Kocacık Yörüks (Turkmen nomads in Anatolia) who settled in the XIV.-XV. Century from Konya and Aydın settled in Macedonia.

His mother Zübeyde Hanım, on the other hand, was the daughter of a long-established Turkish family in the town of Langaza, near Saloniki. Four of Ataturk's five siblings died in their childhood, only Makbule (Atadan) lived until 1956. Little Mustafa began his schooling at Hafız Mehmet Efendi Mektep (school). He later switched to Şemsi Efendi Mektep at the request of his father. His father died in 1888. He stayed with his uncle on the Rapla farm for a while, then returned to Saloniki and finished school there. He then attended the Mülkiye Rüştiyesi (Administrative School) in Saloniki. A short time later, in 1893, he entered the Askeri Rüştiye (Military School). Here he got his name "Kemal" from his math teacher Mustafa Bey. In the years 1896 - 1899 he finished the Manastır Askeri İdadî (military school) and began his studies at the Harp Okulu (war school) in Istanbul. In 1902 he left this school as a lieutenant and continued his military training at the War Academy. On January 11, 1905, he finished this training with the title of captain. In the years 1905-1907 he was in the service of the 5th Army in Damascus, was elevated to Kolağası (an officer rank between captain and major) in 1907 and was transferred to the III. Army relocated. From April 19, 1909, he took up the position of chief of staff in the movement army invading Istanbul. In 1911 he began his activity under the command of the Chief of the Great General Staff. When the war began in 1911 with the attack by Italy on Tripoli, Mustafa Kemal and a group of friends took part in the Tobruk and Derne area. The war in Tobruk against Italy was won on December 22, 1911, and he was appointed commander of Derne on March 6, 1912. In October 1912 the Balkan War broke out. Mustafa Kemal took part in this war with the troops in Gallipoli and Bolayır. With the recapture of Dimetoka and Edirne he did a great job. In 1913 he was appointed military attache of Sofia. While still in service he was given the rank of lieutenant colonel in 1914. He finished his service as a military attache in January 1915. In the meantime, World War I had broken out and the Ottoman Empire had to take part in this war. Mustafa Kemal was tasked with founding the 19th division in Tekirdağ. In the course of the war in 1914 at the Dardanelles, Mustafa Kemal's division was involved in heavy fighting near Çanakkale, in which his commander was distinguished by exemplary behavior. The opposing allies would soon learn that the Çanakkale waterway could not be captured. The English and French fleets suffered such heavy losses on March 18, 1915 when passing the Dardanelles that it was decided to land troops on the Gallipoli peninsula. On April 25, 1915, enemy forces wanted to take Arıburnu (site of a military battle on Gallipoli). However, they were stopped by the 19th Division under the command of Mustafa Kemal at Conkbayırı. Mustafa Kemals was made a colonel because of his success. The English tried again on August 6 and 7, 1915, to attack at Arıburnu. The commander of the Anafartalar group (Anafartalar = places on the Gallipoli peninsula), Mustafa Kemal, achieved the victory over the English at Anafartalar on August 9th and 10th. This victory was followed by the victory at Kireçtepe on August 17 and the second victory at Anafartalar on August 21. Although the Turkish nation lost 253,000 soldiers in the Çanakkale Wars, it was able to retain its honor towards the Entente States. Mustafa Kemal did his service in Edirne and Diyarbakır after the wars at Çanakkale in 1916. On April 1, 1916, he rose to major general. Through his clashes with the Russian troops, he was able to achieve the reconquest of Mus and Bitlis. After his brief assignments in Damascus and Aleppo, he returned to Istanbul in 1917. Together with Crown Prince Vahidettin Efendi, he traveled to Germany, where he carried out a detailed analysis of the course of the war. On August 15, 1918, he returned to Aleppo as commander of the VII Army. On this front he led successful defensive battles against the English armed forces. On October 31, 1918, the day after the Mudros Armistice was signed, he was appointed commander of the Blitzarmee groups. When this army was disbanded, he returned to Istanbul on November 13, 1918. He received a post in the Harbiye Nezâreti (Ministry of War). When the Entente States began to take over the Ottoman armies after the Armistice of Mudros, Mustafa Kemal went on May 19, 1919 as inspector of the IX. Army to Samsun. With the circular published in Amasya "The independence of the people is regained by the determination and decision of the people" he convened the Sivas Congress on June 22, 1919. In the period from 23.07. to 07.08.1919 and from 04. to 11.09.1919 the strategies for the liberation of Turkey were defined.