What are the permanent gases
As Permanent gases or permanent gases Nowadays, in gas analysis in particular, one describes a group of gases to which mainly hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are assigned, and more rarely methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Origin of the term
The term was apparently gradually coined at the beginning of the 19th century for the group of all gases that could not be liquefied or converted into a solid aggregate state using the techniques known at the time. At this time, many scientists made attempts to use the gases that had not been isolated for a long time (1766 hydrogen by Henry Cavendish, oxygen and nitrogen 1772 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele) to subject a wide variety of chemical and physical tests to find out more about their properties. This also included attempts at condensation. Gases that resisted liquefaction (or other conversions) were initially stable gases called. For example, Lavoisier put it in 1803:
“So there are a certain number of substances which, in such degrees of warmth that come very close to those in which we live, are transformed into air-like liquids. We shall soon see that there are others [...] who persist constantly in the airy state with the ordinary degree of warmth and pressure of the atmosphere. "
in the Pure chemistry textbook from 1824 there is the following definition:
“[...] a big difference [is] that the steady or dripping liquid bodies which have passed into the gaseous state through heat can also return to the steady or dripping liquid state under certain circumstances, while there are other gaseous bodies which by themselves in no other form of cohesion are known to us, and which [their] properties are retained under all circumstances, especially in the greatest cold and under the greatest external pressure. We call these permanent, permanent types of air or gas; those, in contrast to these, unstable types of air or gas. "
Berzelius finally wrote in 1833 in Chemistry textbook:
“It should also be noted that many bodies have taken on which gaseous form, neither by cooling, nor by pressing them together, nor by putting both together, brought back to liquid or solid form, or separated from their heat. Such bodies are called permanent or permanent gases; Examples of this are provided by oxygen gas, nitrogen gas, hydrogen gas, and others. "
In the period between 1823 and 1845, Michael Faraday succeeded in liquefying many gases using increasingly sophisticated equipment, including chlorine, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen monoxide and ammonia. The liquefaction of the nitrogen gas, which is then still considered permanent and oxygen did not reach Pictet and Cailletet until 1877 independently of each other. Hydrogen could not even be liquefied by Dewar until 1898. That was the classic definition of the term Permanent gases become obsolete.
- ↑ A. F. Holleman, E. Wiberg, N. Wiberg: Inorganic Chemistry Textbook. 101st edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-11-012641-9.
- ↑ Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Sigismund Friedrich Hermbstädt: System of anti-inflammatory chemistry. Friedrich Nicolai Berlin and Stettin, 1803 (full text in Google Book Search), p. 47.
- ^ Carl Gustav Bishop: Pure chemistry textbook. Eduard Weber Bonn, 1824 (full text in Google Book Search), p. 161.
- ↑ Jöns Jacob Berzelius: Chemistry textbook. Christoph Arnold Dresden and Leipzig, 1833 (full text in Google Book Search), p. 49.
- ↑ T. O'Conor Sloane, Liquid Air and the Liquefication of Gases, Constable And Company Limited, London, 1920, pp. 106, 112 and 114, available at 
- ↑ T. O'Conor Sloane, Liquid Air and the Liquefication of Gases, Constable And Company Limited, London, 1920, p. 184, available at 
- ↑ T. O'Conor Sloane, Liquid Air and the Liquefication of Gases, Constable And Company Limited, London, 1920, p. 155, available at 
- ↑ T. O'Conor Sloane, Liquid Air and the Liquefication of Gases, Constable And Company Limited, London, 1920, p. 280, available at 
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