Which plays did Shakespeare co-authorize?

Henriad - Henriad

Shakespeare's second historical tetralogy
For Voltaire's epic poem, see Henriade.

In Shakespeare Scholarship, Henriad refers to a group of William Shakespeare's story plays. It is sometimes used to refer to a group of four games (a tetralogy), but some sources and scholars use the term to refer to eight games. In the 19th century, Algernon Charles Swinburne used the term to refer to three pieces, but that usage is out of date.

In a certain sense Henriad refers to: Richard II, Henry IV, part 1, Henry IV, part 2, and Henry V - with the implication that these four plays of Shakespeare are epic, and that Prince Harry, who later becomes Henry V, is the epic hero. (This group can also be referred to as the "second tetralogy" or "second Henriad".)

In a broader sense, refers to Henriad on eight pieces; the tetralogy mentioned above, plus four pieces written earlier and based on later historical events - the Civil Wars known as The War of the Roses: Henry VI, Part 1, Henry VI, Part 2, Henry VI, Part 3, and Richard III .

The second tetralogy

The term Henriad was discussed by Alvin Kernan in his article The Henriad: Shakespeare's Major History Plays from 1969 made popular to look at it to point out that the four pieces of the second tetralogy ( Richard II; Henry IV, part 1; Henry IV, part 2; and Henry V ) When considered together as a group or as a dramatic tetralogy, they have coherence and characteristics that are the main qualities of the literary epic: "large-scale exploits involving many men and many activities that encourage the movement of a nation or one Pursuing people through violent change from one state to another. "In this context he sees the four pieces as analogous to Homer's Illiad , Virgils Aeneid , Voltaires Henriad and milton Paradise Lost . The Henriad's action follows the dynastic, cultural and psychological journey England undertook when it left the medieval world with Richard II and moved on to Henry V and the Renaissance. Politically and socially, the Henriad represents a "movement from feudalism and hierarchy to nation-state and individualism". Kernan discusses the Henriad in a similar way in psychological, spatial, temporal, and mythical terms. "In mythical terms," ​​he says, "is the transition from a garden world to a fallen world." This group of games has recurring characters and settings. However, there is no evidence that these pieces were written with the intent that they should be considered as a group.

The character Falstaff is in Henry IV, introduced pt. 1, he returns in Henry IV, pt. Back. 2, and he dies early in Henry V. Falstaff represents the tavern world, a world Prince Hal will leave behind. (This group of three pieces is sometimes referred to as "Falstaffiad" by Harold Bloom and others.)

Henriad with eight games

The term Henriad , which followed Kernan, was given an expanded second meaning, referring to two groups of Shakespeare plays: The above-mentioned tetralogy ( Richard II; Henry IV, part 1; Henry IV, part 2; and Henry V ) and also four pieces written earlier based on the historical events and civil wars known as the War of the Roses; Henry VI, Part 1, Henry VI, Part 2, Henry VI, Part 3, and Richard III . With this in mind, the eight Henry pieces are known as Henriad, and when divided into two parts, they can be referred to as "First Henriad" with the group that later became known as the "Second Henriad".

The two Shakespeare tetralogies share the name Henriad, but only the "second Henriad" has the epic qualities that Kernan had in mind when using the term. In this way the two definitions are a bit contradicting and overlapping. What is intended meaning can usually be inferred by context.

Taken together, the eight pieces are intended to provide a unified story of a major arc in British history Richard II to Richard III tell . These pieces cover that story and go beyond the English chronicle game. They contain some of Shakespeare's greatest writings. They are not tragedies, but as the story progresses they are comparable in terms of dramatic or literary quality and meaning. When viewed as a group, they contain a narrative pattern: disaster followed by chaos and a struggle of competing forces, followed by a happy ending - the restoration of order. This pattern repeats itself in each piece as Britain leaves the medieval world and approaches the British Renaissance. These pieces further express the "Elizabethan world order" or human striving for a world of unity that fights against chaos based on the philosophies, sense of history, and religion of the Elizabethan era.

The eight-game Henriad is also known as The First Tetralogy and The Second Tetralogy. A terminology that was used but by the influential Shakespeare scholar EMW Tillyard in his 1944 book Shakespeare's History Plays was made popular. The word "tetralogy" is derived from the performance tradition of the Dionysian Festival of Ancient Athens, in which a poet was asked to write a tetralogy (τετραλογία): three tragedies and a comedic satyr play. Tillyard studied these Shakespeare story pieces in a dramatic series form and analyzed how the stories, characters, historical chronology and themes are linked and presented. According to Tillyard's book, these pieces were often combined in the performance, and it would be very rare if, for example Henry VI, part 2 or 3 , would be listed individually. Tillyard viewed every tetralogy as linked and that the characters themselves link the stories together when telling their own story or explaining their titles.

The theories, regarding the eight pieces as a group, dominated science in the mid-20th century when the idea was first introduced and have sparked much discussion since then.

King John is not included in the Henriad because it is supposed to have a style that has a different order than the other history games. King John has great qualities in terms of poetry, freedom and imagination, and is recognized by the author as a new direction. Henry VIII will not be included due to unresolved questions about how much of it is co-authorized and what of it was written by Shakespeare.

Three-game Henriad

In Algernon Charles Swinburne's book A Study of Shakespeare (1880) he refers to three pieces, Henry IV pt. 1, Henry IV pt. 2 , and Henry V , as "our English Henriade," and says, the "ripe fruit of historical or national drama, the accomplishment and crown of Shakespeare's works in this line, must of course be recognized and welcomed by all students in the highest and sovereign trilogy of King Henry IV and King Henry V "They are England's" great national trilogy "and Shakespeare's" perfect triumph in the field of patriotic drama ", according to Swinburne.

The 1896 letter from HA Kennedy refers to Henry IV pt. 1, Henry IV pt. 2 and Henry V who says: "Taken together, the three pieces form a henriade, a trilogy whose central character is the hero of Agincourt, whose theme is his development from mad prince to conqueror of France."

Authorship

Shakespeare is well established as the sole author of the plays of the second Henriad, but there has been speculation about possible co-authors of the plays by Henry VI the first Henriad. Christopher Marlowe has been suggested as a possible contributor since the 18th century. Then the editors of New Oxford Shakespeare, headed by Gary Taylor, announced in 2016 that Marlowe and "anonymously" would be on their front pages of Henry VI, parts 2 and 3 to be listed as co-author alongside Shakespeare and that Marlowe, Thomas Nashe and "anonymous" as authors of Henry VI, Part 1 to be listed , with Shakespeare listed as an adapter only. This is not generally accepted, but it is the first time a major critical edition of Shakespeare's works has been co-authored by Marlowe.

Literary background

Pieces that might have influenced, inspired, or made a tradition of Shakespeare's Henriad plays include popular moral pieces that helped develop British drama. Notable moral pieces that focus on British history are John Skeltons Magnificence (1533), David Lyndsays A Satire of the Three Estates (1552) and John Bales piece King John (ca.1538). Gorboduc (1561) is considered to be the first Senecan tragedy to be written in English, although it is a chronicle game written in empty verse. It has numerous serious speeches, a single dramatic plot, and its violence is off-stage.

Out of this tradition, the English Chronicle Game evolved to continue the tradition of medieval morality, providing historical stories and monuments to historical figures, and teaching morality. As King Lear Published as the Quarto in 1608, it has been called the "true English chronicle". Some notable examples from the English Chronicle include George Peeles Edward I , John Lyly's Midas (1591), Robert Greene Orlando Furioso , Thomas Heywood's Edward IV and Robert Wilsons Three gentlemen and three ladies from London (1590). Holinsheds Chronicles (1587) contributed significantly to the plays of Shakespeare's Henriad and also pushed the development of the English chronicle game.

criticism

Were in his book Shakespeare's History Plays , EMW Tillyard's theories of the mid-20th century regarding the eight-game Henriad, extremely influential. Tillyard supports the idea of ​​the Tudor myth, which regards the 15th century in England as a dark time of lawlessness and warfare that eventually led to a golden age of the Tudor period after many battles. This theory suggests that Shakespeare believed this orthodoxy and promoted it with his Henriad. The Tudor myth is a theory that suggests that Shakespeare's history games contributed to the idea that the Henriad's civil wars were all part of a divine plan that would ultimately lead to the Tudors - which in turn would support Shakespeare's monarch. Elisabeth. The argument against Tillyard's theory is that as these plays were written, Elizabeth was nearing the end of her life and reign and the way her successor would be determined made the idea of ​​civil war a cause for concern rather than Made glorification. The lack of an heir from Elizabeth tended to go beyond the idea that the Tudors were a divine solution. Critics such as Paul Murray Kendall and Jan Kott challenged the idea of ​​the Tudor myth, and these newer ideas resulted in the image of Shakespeare changing so much that he now appeared instead to become a prophetic voice in the wilderness, the The warfare recognized the existential futility of this story.

Some critics argue that the Henriad's pieces do not go well together. In the performance, the pieces can appear jumbled and aurally incongruous, and narratives are sometimes strangely dropped and resumed.

There are numerous inconsistencies between the individual pieces of the first tetralogy, which are typical of the serialized drama in early modern playhouses. James Marino suggests: "It is more remarkable that any coherence occurs at all in a 'series' cobbled together from elements from three different repertoires." The four pieces (the first tetralogy) came differently from three different theater companies: The Queens Men, Pembroke's Men and Chamberlain's Men.

A previous use

An earlier use of the word "Henriad" to refer to a group of Shakespeare's plays can be found in a book published in 1876 entitled Shakespeare's Diversions; A medley of brightly colored wear . The author does not define the word but does state that the plays in which the character Mistress Quickly, hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern, appears, is "The English Henriad" as well The Merry Wives of Windsor include ; and that the number of plays in which she appears is four - "one more than Falstaff is granted". The four pieces that are quickly appearing are the Merry Women of Windsor , the two parts of Henry IV and Henry V .

Voltaires Henriade

The French critic and playwright Voltaire is known for being extremely critical of Shakespeare, which he would then make up for with more positive comments. For example, Voltaire called Shakespeare a "barbarian" and his works a "huge dung heap" containing a few pearls. Voltaire wrote an epic poem called La Henriade (1723), sometimes called Henriade is translated . Voltaire's poem is based on Henry IV of France (1553-1610). Algernon Charles Swinburne points out that the two works of the same name, Shakespeares and Voltaires, differ in that Shakespeares "differs from Voltaires because it differs Zaire [a tragedy written by Voltaire] by Othello differs ".

Broadcast productions

References

Tetralogies of the "extended Henriad" approx dates written Years covered Plays
First Henriad 1591-1594 1422-1485 Henry VI, parts 1, 2, 3; Richard III
(Second) Henriad 1595-1599 1398-1415 Richard II; Heinrich IV., Parts 1,2; Henry V.