Which are some natural cycle boilers



1 12 THE MODEL IRON BJ.BNER ~ .. ~ .-.

2 FROM THE CONTENTS The polytechnical training at the Deutsche Reichsbahn 313 Review of the Lcipzig autumn fair Ing.Paul Zapke Warning light system at the unrestricted Ba.lmiübergang W. Bahne1t Modellbahnanlage Eichdorf-Kieferholz Ing. Bruno Schenk The tank wagons of the Deutsche Reichsba hn 319 Are you in Picture ?. 326 Ing. H. Hoffschmidt The current state of electrification at DR. 327 Electromechanical decoupling 329 Jürgen Müller Instructions for a petrol station the size that the busy main train station in the trade fair city of Leipzig has received a state-of-the-art baggage handling facility through renovation and renovation work? The heavy physical work of the handler was largely made easier by the procurement of mechanized baggage transport systems. Photo: G. Wner e that in Portugal on the main line from Lisbon to Porto (350 km) electrical operation has been started on a first section of 110 km from Lisbon to Entroncamento? that in the United Arab Republic the important railway line from Cairo to the industrial area of ​​Heluan has been switched to electrical operation over a length of 24 km? e that in Israel the construction of a new railway line across the Negev desert from Beersheba to the port of Eilat on the Red Sea began? This line should be 240 km long. In recent years the Israeli Railway Administration has procured the following vehicles: 7 these Uoks, 10 these shunting locomotives and 11 diesel multiple units. e that the Hungarian State Railways has now started laying gaps in the tracks. They have already performed well on the Ebes - HajduszoboszZo section (line from Budapest to the Hungarian-Soviet border). Klaus Gerlach 2 'C 1' express train turbine locomotive T I ng. Heinz Schüttoff Controlling a barrier Course "Electrical engineering for model railroaders" Enclosure cover picture Locomotive series 33 of the Austrian Federal Railroad pulls an express train uphill. There is a class 95 locomotive in the opening credits. Photo: K. Pfeiffer, Vienna Back cover Japanese express train, supported by a class C 62 locomotive. IN PREPARATION A crossing of Pike track material Uninterrupted track on concrete sleepers Tender locomotive class 46 of the Bulgarian State Railways ADVISORY EDITORIAL COMMITTEE Günter Barthel, Erfurt-Hochheim Elementary School - Ing.Klaus Gerlach, Central Technical Office of the Deutsche Reichsbahn - Johannes Hauschild, Working Group Model Railways Leipzig - Fritz Hornbogen, VEB Elektroinstallation Oberlind - Siegfried Jänicke, Central Director of the Railway Industrial Union, Department of Cultural Mass Work - Dr. Ing. habil. Harald Kurz, Dresden University of Transport - Gerhard Schild, Ministry of Public Education - Hansotto Voigt, Chamber of Technology, Dresden District. Publisher: Verlag .. Die Wirtsd1afi ". Vet lagsdirektor: \ Valter Franze. Editor:" The model railroader "; Editor-in-chief: Rudolt Graf; Editorial office: Helmut I

3 THE MODEL RAILWAYS 7TH VOLUME BERLIN DECEMBER 19Sa l2 SPECIALIST MAGAZINE FOR MODEL RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION Polytechnical training at the Deutsche Reichsbahn The V. Partellag and the SED school conference set the task. to develop all schools in the GDR into socialist schools, the educational work of which is directed towards the development of all-round educated people with great attention to work. The single-minded! ' Development towards a social school requires a fundamental transformation of the school system. The need arises here. the more or less ordering loose connections between theory and practice. t.wlsehcn teaching, upbringing and productive work more closely and thus to ce ~ t! gcn. that the level of performance in schools reflects our social practice. In the process of transformation and further development of the school system with the aim of socialist education, polytechnical education and upbringing form the core tick. It unites the political, economic, cosmopolitan and moral principles of socialism in an irreconcilable way according to the Ozlallstian principle and contributes to the development of socialist consciousness and so inlnllstlian morals. The combination of teaching and productive work promotes the direct learning of the working class and not only affects our students on the choice of profession - according to our social requirements - but on practical life, the structure of socialism , in front. The companies of the Deutsche Reichsbahn support the schools in the implementation of the "days of the production". They also meet the material requirements for a polytechnical training It is possible to get to know the very loose and often awkward perpetrators of the trainees in practice "n German youth. In the rough of the model building, concerned with the vcrktncn and technically accurate image of the Wlrkllti'l celt and acquired knowledge of the Elsenbahn, which is valuable for polytechnical instruction, but by far not sufficient to get to know the real life of the railway. Oie work! 'lts:; Involving the model railroaders through this very interesting and valuable work have good prerequisites for the acquisition of knowledge as well as the acquisition of skills Celts created. The polytechnical training has the goal of many young people, including the railway system in production itself, on the repair of the vehicle fleet and on the sport of people and goods. It is important that the employees of the Deutsche Reichsbahn not only convey their valuable experiences to the young people, but at the same time spark interest and love for the railroad. Many chillers will acquire knowledge and skills in dealing with \ Verkzculjen and machines in the raw and other technical services. You will create simple spare parts yourself and gain an overview of the production process in these workshops. THE l! Odellei SEXIIA11 NF. R I 2t95S After thorough information on occupational safety and health protection, an upper school in the SICherungs- und Fernmeldewerk Magdeburg was consulted at the beginning of this year under guidance for the simplest work. Afterwards, they could deal with the more complicated activities of this neccessary task. OICS <'method has proven itself; because at the end of the school year, the shillers were able to inspect an infiltrated barrier curtain themselves. In the Rnw Magdeburg l) tc'iil n Mittel- und Grund!> Students in the apprenticeship workshop each come with a small riveting hammer and come into contact with important manual work. You will also get to know the production in the ancillary departments of this plant. In addition to the manual work wedges and the execution of simple work in the product tone process of the subsidiary departments, the young people receive basic knowledge in questions of company economics. The direct, productive cooperation in the repair of the 1-'sh tools and locomotives is only possible to a limited extent due to the heavy and dangerous work and must be decided by the labor committees according to the experiences made so far. Although the polytechnical training must be based on the principle of training: teaching in productive work, the possibilities of physical supplication for the subordinates must not remain unaffected. In spite of this, the repair of the vehicle and machine parts is known through inspections and corresponding explanations. Late '!' in the development for Oberschmer a targeted training, the F; Charbclterberul sought. v er ~ U <'he For a dprartlgc training have been initiated and give an outlook. that the most important way of the DR can be vcrallgcmcine r ~ be <'n. In the operational and transport service, the introduction of the polyt <'dlnl see training comes before well.

4 Just a few weeks ago, the 5th Congress of the Socialist Unity Party set us the big goal of overtaking West Germany by 1961 in terms of per capita consumption of the most important consumer goods and foodstuffs. Already at the autumn fair in 1958 it was clear to every visitor to the fair that the working people of the German Democratic Republic are able to cope with these daunting tasks under the strain of all forces and with the mobilization of all reserves. : VEB Elektroinstallation Oberlind has successfully started the production of the polystyrene-based vehicle fleet, which was announced in the spring. Initially, 4 types of freight wagons of the Deutsche Reichsbahn are issued, namely the boxcar of the standard design of the German regional railways with flat roof, a G-wagon with barrel roof, a multi-floor cattle wagon and the open freight wagon Om. These trolleys consist of a polystyrene base and a top made of the same material. The base frame is prototypically designed to imitate the entire frame construction and the brake. In the case of the running gear, leaf springs, spring collars, spring brackets, hooks, axle bearing housing with fastening screws, lubricating cover and sliding blocks as well as axle holder and axle holder web are indicated on a scaled down. The brake pads are placed in the running circle plane of the wheelsets, which creates an amazing authenticity from every point of view. Two sheet metal brackets are attached to the lower part for the point bearing of the wheel sets, the mounting device for the exchangeable coupling and a 2 mm sheet metal plate to achieve a low center of gravity. The upper part, the car body, is held by 2 fastening screws. These upper parts have just as excellent precision as the underframes and do not allow door handles, maneuvering handles, signal supports, hinges, gusset plates, etc., and not even the many screw and rivet heads in their precise arrangement, to be missing. Even the small rain protection roof, the latch and the wire mesh of the grille flap have been reproduced on the note box. While the box wagons still have raised lettering, the open freight wagon is to be labeled in a new way, which makes the above characters superfluous. There is no doubt that these first-class car models will be very well received, especially given their low price. The fact that this Wagensel'ie is constantly being expanded is very gratifying. The delivery of the first 4 types and the class 23 steam locomotive discussed in issue 3 on page 59 of our magazine can be expected this year. The Gützold V 200 diesel locomotive (see page 129 in issue 5 of the 1958 year) will soon be on the market. The TT products from KG Zeuke & Wegwerth already discussed in the last trade fair reports have already been delivered. The companies Ehlcke and Rarrasch were represented with their well-known, rich S01 timents. The first 3 of the 6 pictures of the scenery of the company Auhagen announced in the spring of 1958 will be delivered in the fourth quarter. Each scene has a length of 500 mm and consists of a foreground, middle and background as well as part of the sky. In addition, individual clouds, trees, meadows and hedges are added to the individual design and to cover the bumps. All parts are screen printed using varnish colors. They are insensitive to light and washable. Since all parts of the 6 different scenes are interchangeable, there is an infinite picture l cattle wagon from the new production of VEB Elektrornstaltation Oberlind (Piko-Modetlbahn). Fig. 2 The new TEMOS-ModelL Stop Plandort. Photos: G. lllner 314 Dlm MODET, LETSENßAJH> .ER

5 FOlie different design options. The entire scenery can be hung on the wall or free-standing on the edge of the system. It is very useful to choose the distance between the foreground, middle and background scenery so large that tracks can be laid between them. In this way, the trains can be completely or partially hidden from view without the need to arrange tunnels. Because these are known to be very obstructive in the event of operational disruptions such as derailments etc. In connection with the terrain construction kit, "See and design", the scenarios can be used to create an ideal map design. The Ternos company has an old signal box .. Buo "from the. Released before WWI. The godfather for this good model is a signal box from the bronze that is still in use in Dresden Reick. Saxon State Railways confessed. Easterienburg in the Magdeburg Rbd district served as a model for the Plandorf stop, which was also excellently successful. The Bavarian train station, "Hohenalp", the "Kleinwaldau" train station, a castle ruin, a multi-purpose waiting hall, various small water booths, etc. complete the range of structural accessories for model railways. The small coaling plant has been redesigned in an advantageous manner. The associated unit slewing crane for coaling was refined that significantly improved its appearance. The Dahmer company had issued parking lights. which are also ideal for illuminating avenues and less busy suburbs. An illuminated poster column was shown for the further development of the model railway systems. Warning cross systems with warning lights were offered for unrestricted level crossings. The VEB Olbernhauer Wachsblumenfab ik showed an attractively equipped model of a water mill; Unfortunately, the windmill was a stylistic mistake, as the Dutch and German windmill styles were unfortunately combined. But this error can certainly be corrected in such a way that a German and a Dutch: 'l'lühle are developed in an authentic style. Weiler showed a signal box "Neustadt" and a two-tier locomotive shed for size H 0. A petrol station is in development. The criticism of wholesalers in volume 5 on page 131 fell on fertile ground. The individual parts of the VEB OWO are no longer only managed and sold by the GHK Leipzig and the wholesale agency Emil Balke, Dresden, but also by other wholesalers. Finally, it should be noted that many model railway manufacturers have announced new products for the next spring fair and we are looking forward to it with great interest Erhard Schröter gauge only 12 mm with the greatest model fidelity. Lowest space requirement. Extended delivery program in the new year. TI catalog 1959 on request. ZEUKE & WEGWERTH KG BERLIN-KÖPENICK::::::::::::::: :::::::::::: -::::::::::::::: DER)! OU ~ JlE l SENUAßXER 121 9 ~ 8 315

6 WOLFGANG BAHNERT model railway system Eichdorf-Kieferholz Model railway plans Eichdorf-Kieferholz Reseau modele Eichdorf-Kieferholz Eichdorf is a small transshipment station on a single-track main line. At the same time, the branch line to Kieferholz goes from Eichdorf, a small place for relaxation and excursions in the mountains.Scheduled express trains stop here, passenger and freight trains start and end here. A small depot looks after the locomotives that run on this route. // :::: - - ~ :: r :: ~ _-_-_-_- = ._-: _-: _ = = = while a class 83 tank locomotive takes care of this on the branch line. The passenger train service is provided on the main line by a class 38 locomotive and possibly later an electric locomotive from the E 44 series. For the branch line service I have planned a class 64 tank locomotive, which will also be used for shunting at Eichdorf station -. =. = = ~ _ / / '~ So let's take the P 2487 to Kieferholz. We are sitting in a train made up of bid wagons, which is ready to leave on platform 3 of the Eichdorf train station. A class 74 locomotive will take us to our destination. An express train is just arriving on track 2. The locomotive is uncoupled and drives to the depot, another is placed on the train. A freight train is currently driving over platform 4. Shortly afterwards we get the exit. With a puff, the locomotive sets the train in motion. In a large arc we slowly go uphill next to the main route and disappear into a tunnel. After a few moments it will be light again. To the right and left of the route there is dense forest. We reach the Birkenwald stop on schedule. Soon it goes further uphill (in a wide arc, until we finally reach the Kieferholz station. This is how a journey from Eichdorf to Kieferholz could run, for example. In Eichdorf station as well as on the entire complex there are many shunting and travel options. Passenger train traffic is on these Routes predominate, which is why the following locomotives run on my layout: The low freight traffic on the main line is handled by a locomotive of the series being pulled. When laying the track, I placed particular emphasis on the longest possible platforms and large curves. If you need spare parts, but cannot cover your needs at a Piko authorized workshop or at your place of residence, you can order Piko spare parts from Radio-Panier, Leipzig C 1, Reichsstrasse 1-9 delivers all Piko spare parts cash on delivery, as long as: 1m warehouse in stock Radio-Panier model tap products of size H 0 from various manufacturers. It is recommended that when ordering spare parts up to a value of 2 DM the purchase amount is paid when the order is placed, otherwise the customer will incur unnecessary cash on delivery fees. No subscription to resellers. D ~; R) fqj) ellihll ~ nßahnl!: R 1 :! 1958

7 1 Mr. Werner Bathow from J üterbog built an interesting model railway layout in size H 0. The layout represents a medium-sized train station located in a valley basin. With clever track laying and the simultaneous storage of 11 model railway trains in a concealed station, a varied and versatile train operation can be handled on the layout. 2 picture I from track 3 Iw / l'lll f ~ ilzuy AUS / llllrt, on track 1 there is a C.ok der Baurel / 1e 74. Das Blla zclgl rzuq.yefßrclert t on a C.ok Cler Rell1e 42. has yerarte F: ln / CII ~ rt. / Jitcl 3 F.in view lltl / clle 3 platforms of the facility. Interesting is both the oil railcar at the llahnsteiq as well as the C.ok cter series 8 in the foreground 1 Photos: Bflllww 4

8 Our reader Willi Hoppe from Magdeburg thinks a lot of self-construction. He not only builds vehicles in size H 0, but also carefully builds tracks, switches, electrical contact lines and high-rise railway structures, as these pictures show. 3 e Fig. 1 These four-axle express train wagons were created according to our blueprint for a B 4il pr 21 In the booklet, the design for electric travel is also interesting. e Bf! d 2 A good job Mr. Hoppe also did with the model! of the water tower and that of a modern passenger car of the Deutsche Reichsbahn. e Fig. 3 The l! ~ mptangsgebäude, .f! chtenta! "and the associated control unit" Ftw "were created under the hardship of Herm Hoppe. open plan was made? PICTURE 4 Another beautiful motif of the HO system by Mr. Hoppr. 318 Photos: G. / IIner

9 l og, BRUNO SCHENK, Berlin The tank wagons of the Deutsche Reichsbahn ~ KCTCPHLI repm. roc. With the tank cars of "Deutsche Reichsbahn" Les wagons-citerne de Ia Deutsche Reichsbahn 1. General The Deutsche Reichsbahn has a special for the transport of liquid, gaseous and dusty goods or goods that turn into a doughy or solid state at certain temperatures - Container car park. Depending on the intended use, this rail-bound vehicle fleet is divided into: a) tank wagons with a cylindrical steel container, b) pot wagons with several fired stoneware pears stored on a covered undercarriage and c) coal dust wagons with two, but mostly three standing steel containers. Two-axle vehicles are marked with a "Z" and four- and multi-axle vehicles with a "ZZ". This abbreviation is taken from the Latin word "cistern" (container). According to the pre-selected abbreviation, the wagons of the group named under c) have a supplementary ko = Zko (cistern coal dust wagon) Non-flammable gases and other chemical and pharmaceutical products. Particularly necessary technical equipment on the vehicles or special designs (number of axles, etc.) within these types are still designated by lowercase alphabetical letters (Il a, II b, etc.). This special type designation and subdivision also takes place their use in the six-digit vehicle registration number (serial number) visible on the vehicle. This consists of 3X2 numbers separated by spaces. All vehicles in the tank wagon category have a 5 as the first number. This means that they are classified as a special group in the category of other freight wagons. The second Number means the prescribed term calculation of the respective type. Example: 50 = Type 0 tank wagons or 53 = Type III tank wagons. The two following two-digit numbers identify the vehicles within their type, generally according to special equipment and according to their number of axles, for example as follows: from to = two-axle wagons, from to = four- and multi-axle wagons. 2. Types and equipment of the vehicle boiler Tank wagons The types of goods mentioned in the introduction and transported by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in closed containers are mainly divided into neutral, flammable, acidic, caustic, poisonous and explosive goods. Safety in the transport sector therefore requires that the vehicle boilers, in accordance with the legal principles, in accordance with the relevant occupational health and safety regulations and Fig. 1 b, dare to do the same as 1 a, but with a sewn design. Fig. 1 a Two-axle tank car for flammable liquids, welded duct. Photos: G. I !! ner Earmarked for the individual or several types of cargo that do not form a chemical bond with each other, and according to the chemical and physical behavior of the cargo in relation to the boiler shell and fittings material used, the entire liquid container park is in five main types, type 0 to IV, divided. Type 0 includes vehicles for the transport of carburettor and light-colored diesel fuels, such as gasoline, benzene, etc. The next following types include vehicles for other flammable liquids, low and medium liquid oils, acids and alkalis, technical fats, fatty alcohol sulfonates, coal dust , compressed and compressed. ]) ER ~ 10]) ELLE1 SENHAli NEll i2 195S 319

10 Bllct 1c Four-axle tank car for flammable liquids. / Jilct 1 ct two-axle lightweight tank wagon for flammable liquids "safety regulations are built, monitored, treated and maintained. In terms of design, two basic types of vehicle boilers come into consideration, namely: dt jerkless boilers and pressure boilers 0, I, II, III f and IV d. All other vehicle boilers are pressure vessels. Boilers of the first type have a cylindrical boiler body with inserted boiler floors. In the DR tank car park, these boilers are currently still available in welded and single-row riveted designs In accordance with the progress of technology, however, the award of new construction orders is only required for an electrically welded version (see Figures 1 a to d). Vehicles for liquid transport including liquefied gases must have baffles. In addition to their main task, the rolling movements of the liquids during the Drive z u reduce, they give the relatively weak-walled large-capacity boilers an absolutely necessary stiffening. The number of baffles in the boiler is arranged so that the individual boiler sections are no longer than 3.50 m. The minimum thickness of the baffle plates should be 7 mm and have certain limiting dimensions so that the individual boiler sections can be accessed when cleaning the boiler. The distance from the lower edge of the baffle plate to the bottom of the boiler should be 750 mm, for cars with heating coil 850 mm and from the upper edge of the baffle plate to the boiler ceiling 150 mm. Several staggered access openings are provided in the baffle. If possible, a baffle plate should be located at the end of the dome opening 320 so that the boiler can be accessed from the manhole. The attached boiler dome has the dome lid and a hinged bracket lock with dome screw and wing nut. The safety device, the so-called gas displacement nozzle, is attached to the top part of the boiler dome. This is a combined explosion-preventing safety device on the tank wagons for the transport of flammable liquids with a flash point below 55, including oils and crude oils. It combines in itself: a) The safety valve in the valve bell, which blows off fully at 1 atm. b) The flame arrester (close-meshed kitchen grate). When the safety valve or the gas displacement line is open, this also prevents the loss of the cap and the passage of sparks into the inside of the boiler. c) The gas displacement passage. The complete safety device is stored in a special protective chamber and can be detached with two screws for tests and cleaning according to its latest design to prevent damage from being used when loading goods via the boiler dome. Mode of operation When filling and filling, the tank wagon is connected to the cargo holding tank via the spigot valve by a line that must have an earthing system and an insulating adapter. The air balance between the two containers is now brought about by an additional line, the gas displacement line, so that no explosive gases can escape into the open. Fig. 2 a Two-axle tank wagon with built-in Hefzrohrsysrem. The address, .H 4/100 "(left) means that the car is consumed via 4 heating pipes of 100 mm each. Photo: Factory photo DEit) lqdelleisenuahnerl21958

11 The connection thread is 1 3 // '(pipe thread according to OIN 259). Vehicle boilers of types 0, I and II are mostly filled via the boiler dome opening, unless they are filled from below via the spigot valves and the gas displacement device is switched on. A special Ouplex bottom valve with Perbunan, Durogum or hard lead inlay rings that cannot be dissolved by the cargo or a simple conical bottom valve, depending on the type of cargo, also uses non-ferrous metal and steel valve seats and valve disks, takes care of the boiler closure after the drainage or emptying device. Before the vehicles are presented (on request), it is therefore always necessary to check whether the vehicle boiler does not have any boiler shell or fittings that would chemically bond with the cargo, cause signs of decomposition or discoloration that would render the goods worthless. Thought only for medicines and foodstuffs. But even with the other pharmaceutical and chemical substances, the degree of purity must not be reduced by the transport container. The actuating device of the bottom valve comprises the valve rod passing through the boiler and the hand wheel attachment on the boiler roof with a stuffing box. The connection of the valve rod to the base valve is designed like a cardan joint in the case of double valves. In the case of simple valves, it is only inserted in a slotted approach and is splinted using a lock ring. The outlet flanges are located outside of the boiler on both sides of the bottom valve housing or, in the case of simple valves, at the bottom. The drain nozzles are attached to these, and the drain T-nozzles for simple valves are fastened with screws. The intermediate drainage pipes on both sides have, as required, tc double locking device for tank wagons, a quick-acting spigot valve or a drainage cock each. The standardized dimension of the passage (clear width) is 100 mm. The drain valves and taps have screw-on caps as terminations. These have recently been given a special protection against loss. The standardized thread of the caps is 5 1 i: "according to OIN 11. The volume of the boiler types described and mentioned ranges between 200 and 630 hectoliters (hl). All vehicle boilers are equipped with so-called boiler support saddles or saddle, side or The expansion coefficient of the boiler is taken into account by the fact that, as far as the construction allows, the pair of saddles is designed as a sliding seat Proven. This type of vehicle, which often showed deformation of the boiler, was almost invariably reinforced by the installation of continuous U-fronts. Depending on the time of year, temperature differences occur in our latitude, so that when the temperature drops, many loads become doughy or solid In order to be able to use the tank wagons l These tank wagons have special heating devices to unload them in accordance with the deadline and return the goods to a liquid state. Existing heating pipe systems are introduced into the lower part of the boiler floors via heating chambers with flange connections in different strands and pipe queues and are closed off with an inlet valve and condensation valve. The operating pressure of the heating coil is 4 atm. The above picture is a two-axle tank car with a combined helm roller system. Bllcl 2c two-axle tank car with ten-strand heating pipe and boiler jacket insulation. In this case, turned heating panels must be adapted to the softening temperatures to be achieved for the cargo. A new feature in these vehicles is the fully heated discharge system. the bottom valve zone. In order to keep the loading temperature of the cargo as high as possible and to insulate the heat when it heats up, some of the vehicles are provided with boiler jacket insulation. The most common insulating materials for tank wagons are Ip01 ka, Piatherm, slag and glass wool (see Figures 2 a to 2 d). The vehicles have a ladder to operate the upper filling and emptying systems. In a departure from the previous ascent from the long side, this was generally introduced in new construction vehicles from one end of the boiler. The ladders end at the catwalks on both sides of the boiler. The catwalks, previously made of wood, are expediently made using gratings. The railings surrounding the catwalk must be 800 mm high and have toe and knee rails. In the case of large-capacity vehicles, they must be at least up to the profile height (vehicle boundary profile) and must be absolutely accident-safe. These provisions and designs apply to tank wagons; generally. : l2l

12 Fig. 2 d Two-axle standard tank wagon for cargo of tar or tar-like substances with a close-knit heating pipe system. The next large group are the types of pressure vessel vehicles. The vehicle pressure boilers and vehicle pressure gas boilers are subject to special periodic examinations arranged by me, namely: 1. Vehicle boilers with compressed air evacuation. These boilers must be subjected to an internal examination every four years and an internal and external examination with a water pressure test every 8 years according to the occupational safety and health ordinance 840 (pressure vessels). 2. Vehicle pressurized gas boilers in accordance with the Pressure Gas Ordinance or Occupational Health and Safety Order 861 and its technical principles, in which a) compressed - combustible and non-combustible gases, b) liquefied - combustible and non-combustible gases and c) dissolved under pressure - combustible and non-combustible gases non-flammable gases are transported. The first group includes all vehicles in which, almost without exception, acids and related products are transported without pressure but are emptied using compressed air. The cylindrical kettles have a volume of 90 to 290 hl and have no lower outlets. The filling and emptying takes place via the dome device.The boiler dome with a relatively larger diameter is closed with a dome cover fastened by a large number of machine screws. On this dome flange there are three studs with different diameters. According to the order of magnitude, a distinction is made here between: filler necks, riser pipes and compressed air connection nozzles, whereby the maximum size of the filler necks applies. The riser pipe ends in the boiler bottom in the riser pipe recess, a wart-shaped recess in the boiler shell, so that complete emptying is possible. The emptying pressure permitted for the boiler is a maximum of 4 atmospheres, the test pressure 1.3 p. (p means the maximum permissible operational drainage pressure) (Figures 3 a and 3 b). The boilers have heating vats to heat the acids that become viscous or crystallize at low temperatures. The boiler rests in a completely closed tub, which extends to the horizontal center of the boiler and has a circumferential flange. The tub has a steam inlet valve and a condensate shut-off valve. The operating pressure is 1.5 atü (Fig. 3d). However, certain concentrations of corrosive substances attack ordinary steel or decompose it in a very short time. For such cargo, vehicles with alloyed tanks made of V2a steel (chrome-nickel steel - Remanit), metallurgical soft lead and vukanisietiem hard rubber are available on request. Other plastic materials produced by industry, including igelite, have been used on a trial basis, but have not proven themselves. The same also applies to fireclay, ceramic and bitumen protective layers, for which no durability could be achieved. For the transport of acetic acid, aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide (6-40 / o) techn. Fats, fatty acids, etc. are intended for vehicles with welded aluminum boilers. In order to exclude chemical compounds, the aluminum content must be 99.5 / o (Fig. 3 c). Pressurized gas vehicles occupy a special position in the tank vehicle fleet because they constantly transport cargo under relatively high operating pressures. In addition to the material and design, manufacture and equipment, the boilers must have the approved acid tank wagons with pressure drainage via boiler equipment. Fig. 3 b The same car as 3 a. but with heating. 01-: R) JODELLEISE!

13. "Technical principles" and correspond to the recognized rules of technology, accordingly are treated and periodically examined. The test pressure for compressed gases = 1.5fochct filling pressure and for displaced gases = according to the special table in the "Technical principles" ( Edge no) .The test pressure is e.g. for containers in which the following is transported: Cartox, carbonic acid ammonia, propane stick! .Tofftetroxid, chlorine, methylamine, sulphurous acid, butane 190 atmospheres 25 atmospheres 22 atmospheres 14 atmospheres 12 atmospheres For compressed gases, the permissible filling pressure is decisive. For liquefied gases, the so-called filling number applies, which indicates how many liters of space must be available for 1 kg of filling. Figure 3 c Two-axle tank wagon with aluminum tank for technical fats and loads that act on steel , .j II 'tSOO -osc MO- variant WagM A Fig. 3d Two-axle acid tank wagon with filling and emptying nozzles on the boiler roof and the helm bath in own boiler shield, which is to be attached to the boiler shell with copper rivets. However, copper and its alloys must not be used for ammonia and acetylene. The boiler plate must contain the following clearly legible castings or the following stamps on raised surfaces: boiler manufacturer and glow stamp, year of construction, test print in ntü, test date. the type of gas transported in the boiler, possibly empty weight and operating pressure and the expert stamp (boiler tester). With compacted gnats: volume in liters, maximum permissible filling pressure <. In the case of liquefied gases, on the other hand, only: maximum permissible filling weight in kilograms. In the case of newly built pressurized gas boilers, the material, the yield point and the wall thickness should also be impressed on all gases. The boilers must have double closures, namely pressure gas valves connected in series for each tapping point, but must not have any safety valves. The seals must be 1010 ~ Fig. 4 a four-axle pressurized gas tank wagon {original cargo propane. Butane et al. with written FUllgew! clu. _. 2 ~ I 'Fig. 4 b The same car as 4 a, but. with sun protection cover. THE MODEL RAILWAYER

14 Fig. 5 Two-axle wagons [Ur the transport of liquid oxygen. Photo: Bring the company photo and make sure that it cannot be opened by unauthorized persons. If they are only used for a certain gas or one of the following group, pressurized gas vehicles must have an oil color band 100 mm wide around the middle of the boiler, running parallel to the solebar: acetylene other flammable gases oxygen nitrogen all other non-flammable gases yellow red blue green gray ( machine gray). In order to prevent overfilling during the filling process of pressurized gas boilers, there are special sounding pipes with flange locks. However, they are generally only used for filling without weighing. The length of these pipes is specified for each vehicle boiler and for certain types of cargo and must not be undercut under any circumstances (Figures 4 a and 4 b). Pressurized gas vehicles with relatively very high operating pressures (150 atmospheres) are also the oxygen transport vehicles in the vehicle fleet. These are three drawn steel cylinders stored on a chassis, which are protected from direct sunlight by a curved roof. The tapping units are in a special fittings cabinet. Filling and control devices housed. Oxygen fittings must be made of brass, bronze or stainless steel. The use of rubber or rubber substitutes as sealing material is strictly prohibited. In contrast to the vehicles for transporting gaseous oxygen, the vehicles for transporting liquid oxygen are also dealt with at this point (Fig. 5). The boilers for oxygen - liquid - do not fall under the group of pressure boilers. Their prescribed operating pressure is only intended for unforeseen pressure increases in the boiler to 0.4 atmospheres. If it is taken into account that 1 liter of oxygen using a hot or cold gasifier yields 0.8 m 5 of gas, the economic viability of transporting liquid oxygen should be obvious, even if this is a normal loss of about 5 / o occurs by evaporation. The vehicles currently available in small numbers have a boiler volume of 190 hl. The boiler shell material consists of 324 copper or bronze sheets. Under certain conditions, aluminum could also be used. The transport temperature of liquid oxygen is minus 186. In order to maintain this temperature during the transport time, the boiler has an insulating jacket that surrounds it on all sides. Iporka, Piatherm and slag wool are used as insulating poles. In the latter, however, the sulfur content is dangerous for the boiler shell material copper and its related alloys, because this causes a gradual progressive decomposition and thus premature boiler wear. With the use of a protective skin, however, this insulating material can also be used. The control cabinet on the chassis platform on the boiler contains a mercury safety device with a collecting device, the necessary fittings and operating instructions with the designation of the individual valves. If there is icing up, the existing Hampsonmeter thawing line is used. Wood should not be used on the vehicle due to the risk of fire and the benefit of volatile oxygen. Treads and stages should therefore be made of metal gratings. To prevent a dangerous increase in pressure and icing up of the lines and the vehicle, the shut-off valve of the evaporation line must remain open during transport and when the vehicle is at a standstill, so that released oxygen can escape unhindered through the vehicle. Pot trolley Loads such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, formic acid, with extremely aggressive effects on steel --- Fig. 6 a Two-axle pot trolley with. 12 Stoneware for the transportation of syllables. Fig. 6 I> ~ Pot trolley with 10 petrol pots. DER)! QDF.LJ.EISE ~ HA RXER; -----

15 FIGURE 7 Drelach.slgcr coal accumulation>:> wagons with three standing containers., ... j - - and thus rapidly progressing corrosion of the boiler, are preferably transported in pot wagons. Pot wagons have ten or twelve burnt stoneware pots embedded on the base of the chassis and provided with special longitudinal and transverse brackets (Figs. 6 a and 6 b). The pots are secured against displacement by embedding blocks. According to more recent findings, the embedding blocks are padded with angled soft rubber. The volume is 1000 liters per pot. The chassis floor is slightly saddle-shaped and provided with an acid-insensitive protective layer. To drain off overflowing acids, the floor has end strips on the long side and 4 drainage pipes on each side. The pots rest on slatted frames that are suitably adapted to the slope of the floor and are also insulated to be acid-proof. Gudron putty, asphalt or similar substances are used as IsoHermittel, which are applied in a hot state. Pot trolleys have end walls on both sides that must protrude at least 100 mm above the top edge of the pot. The pots have lids that are potted. The casting compound must not harden even at low temperatures, but must remain elastic. The filling and emptying openings on the pot lids are closed by stoneware screw plugs, some with a conical thread and a soft rubber seal. Coal dust wagons The container vehicles for the transport of coal dust belong to the group of pressure vessels, as they are operated with an operating pressure of 2 atm (Fig. 7). The legal basis for the maintenance and treatment is therefore also the occupational health and safety order 840 (pressure vessels). Coal or coke dust includes all particles ground from these substances with a grain diameter of less than 0.5 mm. Whirled up coal dust is extremely flammable and explosive, while stored it is flammable. There is therefore a special occupational health and safety order (ASA 523) for dealing with it. The superstructures of the vehicles are three, in some cases two standing sheet steel containers with a downward conical outlet. The emptying valve begins here in the lower boiler part of each container with an interposed shut-off valve that ends at intervals in the main emptying line for all boilers. In the upper part of each container there is the manhole closed with a special cover, the pressure gauge (manometer), THE MODELLEISI-: N UAfiXER the safety valve that blows off at 2 atmospheres and the vent valve to bring about a pressure equalization before loading. The confluence of the upper air line is still in this part of the boiler. The vehicle has a central air line for connection to a stationary air compressor when the container is emptied. From this line, a) the sliding air line, b) the delivery air line and c) the overhead air line branch off for each individual container, interrupted by special interposed cone valves. The central compressed air line, as well as the main discharge line, have cap closures at their ends, which must be permanently closed except during the unloading process and are secured against loss. The conveying air line introduced in the lower conical boiler part, the end of which is designed like a mouthpiece, has the purpose of swirling up the coal dust when compressed air enters and blowing it into the main evacuation line. Constant incrustations of coal dust at the end of the pipe, caused by condensation water, which made the nozzle ineffective, led to the development of a rubber lip valve. Since the introduction of these lip valves, a source of error in pulverized coal operation that has always occurred and disrupted the unloading business has been eliminated. The pulverized coal is conveyed in the main discharge line by the push air. The upper air in the boiler also swirls up the pulverized coal. The pressure, which then continues to rise up to 2 atmospheres, pushes the dust down from the container. However, only one container may be unloaded at any one time. The others follow in a certain order, namely: Containers I, III and II to load the vehicle axles evenly and to prevent the vehicle from tipping over. It is particularly noteworthy that all tank wagons must be built in such a way that the vessels are earthed. Vehicles with dangerous fillings must also have special license plates when in operation; z. B .: Skull sign for chlorine, chlorinated carbon etc. Hazard label .. Flammable and poisonous "for methane, chloromethyl, chloroethyl, di- and trimethylamine and the like. Toxic for vinyl chloride and other labels: Flammable (flammable): for butane, propane, hydrogen, etc. 32.3

16 a shunting signal? When does a signalman act as a shunting manager and can only then give shunting signals in which cases? Solution to task 52 from issue 11/58 According to our information, the picture is supposed to be the door of a so-called ferry boat car of the CSR. These wagons are used for trajectory traffic across the English Channel to Great Britain. They are built narrower so that they can run on the British routes, as these have a smaller clearance profile. Perhaps our readers from CSR will inform us a little more about it? LITERATURE INFORMATION We recommend the following books to all readers who want to add to their library for Christmas: Gerhard Trost Kleine Elsenbahn - very large Verlag Neues Leben, Berlln, 14.80 DM The book generally deals with the construction and operation of model railways in an easily understandable form . are you in the picture? Dr.-Ing. Harald Kurz Basics of the lllodellbabntechnlk Fachbuchverlag Leipzig; Volume I: 8.50 DM, Volume left: 6.80 DM A technically interesting work about problems that every model railroader should approach quickly. Belde volumes provide valuable information for reliable operation. We recommend to our West German readers: Exercise 53 In our picture we can see how the signal box personnel communicate with the other employees of the shunting service. The signalman uses a red-white-red waving disc for this purpose. Does he give his consent to a shunting run in our picture or he gives another company railroader Pit Franckh \ Veite \ 'elt der Ebenbahn Franekh and art prints. The book leads everyone in an easily comprehensible form into the wide world of iron railways and is therefore a good reference work for every model railroader. A new training system at the Deutsche Reichsbahn And again another training system is being built at the Deutsche Reichsbahn. In Stralsund, the working group "Modellisenbahnbau" of the German State Railroad's vocational school is in the process of building a large Lohrunlage in size 0. Once again, the high polytechnical and instructive value of model railroad construction proved itself at that time. 326 THE MODEL IRONER

17 lh: i NZ lloff SCHMIDT, ßerlln The current state of electrification at the Deutsche Reichsbahn Yposen & snektpo

18 it is now possible to transport freight trains from the Leipzig-Engelsdorf marshalling yard directly to Dessau Roßlau using electric locomotives. The electrified lines of the DR therefore currently have a total length of 160 km. Since the completion and testing of the above-mentioned converter system was delayed and, on the other hand, the rapid continuation of the electrification could not be delayed, the DR decided to extend the Magdeburg Halle route beyond Halle to Leipzig with the, after the aforementioned routes, with the The associated Leipzig substation and the 36 km long 110-kv traction current transmission line Muldenstein-Leipzig must now be tackled. Thanks to the enthusiasm of all the supply and plant construction companies involved in the electrification, as well as the Reichsbahn offices, it will probably be possible to drive all passenger trains on this section of the route by the end of this year. The next route will be the Halle-Weißenfels route with the branching Merseburg-Müächen route, on which, from the end of 1959, the coal trains from the Geiseltal can be transported to Magdeburg with electric locomotives without changing the string. The transport tasks resulting from the development of our national economy in the next few years made it necessary to further electrify the Halle-Weißenfels line via Weißenfels to Erfurt, initially in favor of the Leipzig-Altenburg line with its branch lines Neukieritzsch-Borna and Böhlen Put back aspen grove. The Werdau Reichenbach-Karl-Marx-Stadt-Dresden and Dresden - Leipzig routes will then follow as part of the third five-year plan. The next five-year plans will then bring an annually increasing increase in the length of electrified lines, whereby, of course, those lines are primarily preferred that are subject to heavy loads in difficult line conditions and therefore guarantee this. that the mileage of electric locomotives, which is much higher than that of steam locomotives, can be used as far as possible. It should also be of interest. that the intention is to set up a route near Berlin for the test operation of electric locomotives for single-phase alternating current 50 Hz in the near future. The decisive factor for this is the fact that foreign railway administrations, who also want to convert their operations to electrical traction and thus simultaneously connect the supply of large areas of their country with electrical energy, are evidently leaning more towards the 50 Hz system. Our Lokomolivbauindustrie must of course take this fact into account and create the opportunity to be able to thoroughly test the EIJoks that may be exported beforehand in their own country in order to evaluate the knowledge gained in this for them technical uncharted territory and to be able to deliver the electric locomotives correspond to world standards in every respect. For the electrical route network of the DR, however, the proven traction current system single-phase Wcch ~ elstrvm 15 kv - 16 s Hz, in which a considerable part of our national wealth is invested, will be retained for the foreseeable future. Photos: G. Ulner ~ ~ lli: H) f () f> f: l.l.l: l s ~: xii. \ Iixeill :! l! l.j ~

19 I According to a letter from H. Haibauer) JICKTJ) O ~ teX3 11 H'ICCK OC J) 33CQCDJICJU IC Elcctro mechanical uncoupling Dettclage elcctro-mecaniquc After the uncoupling of traction vehicles has already been dealt with several times in this magazine, an electromechanical uncoupling System are described which has various advantages over the known methods. The coupling device I) described by Gäbler requires a relatively large amount of space and the precise manufacture of the rocker switch. The decoupling magnet developed by Schröter 2) allows starting with the coupling bracket raised, but causes considerable circuit complexity. The Piko coupling device 3), which only works mechanically, requires very little space, but requires the car to be pushed off so that it does not couple again when it starts up. With the proposed decoupling, after the decoupling has responded, the disengaged clutch is locked in this position as long as the motor vehicle is stationary or moves in the direction of the disengaged clutch, i.e. H. repels the vehicles. Only when the drive is in the opposite direction does the clutch return to the rest position. In Figure 1, the details 7.Ut 'achievement of the above-mentioned mode of action can be seen. The position is shown in the uncoupled state. The bracket of the coupling K is connected to the lever H by the rod G. This is rotatably mounted in the middle and carries the pawl S at the other end. This pawl S is the most important part of the arrangement. It hangs loosely on the lever H so that its inclined surface rests against the axis A of a wheel set. If the magnet M now responds, the clutch K is opened via the lever H. At the same time, the pawl S is pressed down, and the nose falls under the axis A (Fig. 2). This position is retained even if the magnet M no longer carries current, since the spring F the. Lever H can only push up until the nose of the pawl S rests on the axis A. Even if the traction vehicle moves in the direction of the open clutch, J) Cäblcr, an electromagnetic clutch device for model drive vehicles, z. Der Modellcisenbahner- ~! 955, S. 7. 2) Schröter, Electromagnetic remote decoupling for the Piko locomotive series 80, z. "Der Modellciscnbnhner- Si l9l6, s) Siegel, An automatic coupling device for Pik? LOkomollven. Z ... Der Modelletsenbnhncr", S OK the coupling bracket opened (picture 2). It can therefore travel as far as desired in this direction, pushing the vehicles off, stopping in between, etc. If the motor vehicle drives again in the opposite direction after the end of the pushing off of the car, the axis A rotates in the direction of the bearing in Figure 3. This causes the horizontal surface of the pawl S to roll on the axle until the spring F can push the lever up again. The initial state is now restored. K Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the electromechanical E'ltkupplung; A = axle of a wheelset. K = clutch, P = adjustable spring. M - electromagnet, c = coupling rod. s = pawl, H = lever. - Fahrtr.chlung Fahrlmhlung - Dfld for resetting the mechanical parts when pressing. Fig. 3 Provision at Vorwiirts (ahrt. The medlanical design of the decoupling coupling is of course different from case to case. In the current arrangement, the fixed part of the coupling on the locomotive was set approx. 0.5 mm lower than in the Car. As a result, the bracket of the car coupling always slides over that of the motor vehicle and is lifted when uncoupling. The electrical actuation of the uncoupling magnet can also be different. While in the case described, an upper voltage of V (at 16 V driving voltage) is used, different ones can also be used Types of current are used. I)!) In addition, installation is not only possible in the tender, but also directly in the drive unit. We wish all our readers at home and abroad a Merry Christmas and a healthy, successful 1959 in the struggle for peace in the world. THE EDITORS OF THE ~ todm.lelsexllahxer l 21 0SS 329

20 J'O: R.GEX> great .. Rochlitz / Sa. Building instructions for a tank station in size HO JIHCTPY KQ ~ JII AJIII 113f0TOBJICHIU1 Janpa BO'IHOfO nyn KTa n ~ 1acurra6e «H 0» Building plan for scrvice station in sizc H 0 Instruction cle construction pour un poste d'essence cn tl 0 OK 6 $: 72 The drawing was laid out in such a way that a detailed description of the building is superfluous. All parts are transferred to the material specified in the parts list and sawed out or cut out. The following instructions should be used for assembly: 1. Glue the pillars and all fuel pumps onto the base plate. 2. Provide the large roof area with the ceiling coves and the transparent paper disk and glue them on. 3. Now install the lighting, consisting of a 19 V incandescent lamp with plug socket. 4. Glue the small roof surface and insert a small plexiglass rod into the light passage opening. If there is none, the light bulb in the roof is sufficient to illuminate the neon sign. The neon sign is cut out of 0.3 mm thick cardboard and glued together from the three parts a, b and c according to the drawing. Before doing this, tape the outer ring behind with yellow and the T with red transparent paper. The finished neon sign is glued to the roof. The model is painted with poster paint: All parts concrete gray, the two visible surfaces of the pillars and the petrol pumps yellow, the lettering red, the roof surfaces black. Photo: A. Delang Parts List Consec. No. Designation number 1 1 base plate 2 2 pillars 3 2 ceiling voule 4 large roof area 5 small roof area 6 1 neon sign 7 2 pillar for petrol 8 pillar for air and water 9 T er MODELLEI SENßABNER121958

21 6 sts 1: 1 [J] f} I I 7- '' -7.-J 7 sts. L: l 9 sts /: 1 a. b vna c stene Bovbescnretbunq. 0 b 8augrö ~ HO t;: j tol I = 1 ö tool ~ CR tool Ii: t ::>> td z l'l; :: 1 ...,., 00 "'Tti / 8 ~ ... J / l lo '5, o xa ~ tdvrcnfunrung Longitudinal view Upper view part 3 ,. d: _._ .. Lfetl s / -, - i' '""';,; i; "- <; ~ <~: 1. [I, '-' fj l! I so Jl) 50 ,. 3 a Kab ldurcfllvll rvng bet IS / u (; k 6 '- 0 I. le ~ fuli a stand feit 3rd M. 1: 1 4 o A vs ~ cttnä for 6 / ilhblfnt. From vnlen lro nsparentpap ~ r 34 ~ 14 mm anltleben 0 3 ~ Cl> ... t 35 l_ _, 6 46 5a Glue from 1 mm d plywood to part 5 o Lichfdurchfri fl for illuminated advertisements date ~ mark. May 8th checked) ff 10. Mat MoRstob 1: 2 petrol station t: t views of single line

22 LOKARCHIV Ing. K 1 .. \ USG "'n 1. \ t 1I, llcrlin I 2' Cl 'Express train turbine locomotive T ApxJrB noko ~ iotjt aoa: OapOBOJ T Locomotive T Archives de locos: T You can enter the steam turbine Achieve more favorable steam consumption by not only releasing the steam - as in the piston engine - to atmospheric pressure, but below it. Of course, this requires a condenser behind the turbine, in which there is a constant negative pressure and in which the steam is precipitated The boiler condensate can then be used again to feed the boiler. It is always in the circuit (boiler-turbine-condenser boiler), is already chemically pure after the first circuit and is therefore very gentle on the boiler. These favorable features of turbine operation were wanted also transferred to the steam locomotive.A very important, positive factor also appeared here, namely that the reciprocating masses of the piston and the cross head w It was also important that the torque is evenly distributed over the entire circumference of the wheel and that - not tied to the piston speed - the drive and coupling wheels could be made smaller. All of these factors should give a future steam turbine locomotive smooth running and good start-up capabilities. Krupp first ventured into this new area and built a turbine locomotive in 1923. In 1926 the Maffei company followed suit with a second. Both locomotives were sch1 similar, they had the wheel arrangement 2'C1 'and were given the company numbers T and T. The Maffei'sche locomotive was a little more powerful than the Krupp company. After the first teething problems had been resolved, it turned out that the above-mentioned advantages of the turbine drive came into their own. The locomotives ran quietly, pulled in well and achieved a coal saving of up to 28 percent compared to comparable piston locomotives. Both locomotives were in operation for a considerable period of time; the T was only withdrawn from service in 1941 because its brake no longer complied with the regulations. However, the steam turbine locomotives also have significant disadvantages, which lay in the fact that the main turbine only allowed the forward direction of travel and an auxiliary turbine had to be provided for reversing and, on the other hand, that the auxiliary machines had to keep running at low power and when idling and so used up the savings again. During the war and also after 1945 this A1 t of the drive was not taken up again at the Deutsche Reichsbahn, so that the operation of the two turbine locomotives can only be counted as an attempt. The CSR has recently built a turbine locomotive, but the results have not yet been announced. The 2'Cl 'express train turbine locomotive T will now be described below. As already mentioned, the locomotive had three coupled axles. The flanges in the middle were weakened. The frame was designed as a bar frame, which continued behind the last coupling axle as a 40 mm thick plate frame. The front part of the bar frame, which was connected to the steel castings used to support the turbine and gearbox, was designed separately from the main frame for better machining on the boring mill. A fork construction screwed to the smoke box support established the mutual connection. The main turbine lay above the front bogie at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the locomotive and, through a double gear drive on both sides, drove the jackshaft running beneath it, from which a parallel crank drive worked on the drive wheels. The forward and reverse turbines were arranged in a common cast steel housing. The turbine housing was mounted on a ribbed cast steel piece connecting both frame sides; The jackshaft bearing cover, which is common to both bearings and which also carried the pivot pin, was attached to this from below. During the changes in length due to thermal expansion, the cast steel turbine housing was guided parallel and transversely to the turbine axis by two wedge guides. The turbine shaft made 8800 rpm at a speed of 120 km h, which was reduced to the jackshaft in a ratio of 1:24. The forward turbine consisted of a two-ring speed wheel as a high-pressure part, a constant pressure wheel and five overpressure wheels. A three-ring speed wheel with a slightly smaller diameter than the forward turbine was used as the backward turbine and idled when moving forward. The two condensers used to precipitate the vapor were surface condensers. The cooling water flowed in four rivers through thin-walled brass pipes around which the steam washed. The brass tubes were laid in metal plates on the end walls of the condenser casing; Stuffing boxes provided with cotton cord packing sealed the cooling water space against the vacuum vapor space a b. These glands were nad1 332