# What is the hardest 3x3 cube algorithm

Welcome to the tutorial of the Fridrich method by Jessica Fridrich!
In this tutorial you can learn the professional method, which is used by almost all Speedcubers. A little practice with this method and you can manage times of under 40 seconds;)
Good luck and have fun!

The Fridrich method is the most widely used solving method used by professionals.
It is very fast and consists of 4 steps and was invented by Jessica Fridrich (Jessica Fridrich's homepage). 4 steps doesn't sound like much, but actually you can say that the 2nd step, the First 2 Layers (first two layers), consists of 4 sub-steps.
The last two steps are just algorithms that need to be learned. The first step is the familiar cross and thus the second step, the F2L, is the most complicated. If possible, this should be handled intuitively, i.e. from your own solution.
But enough of the introduction, now let's get down to business ...

Step 1: Cross (white cross)
Step 2: First 2 layer (F2L)
Step 3: Orientation of the last layer (OLL)
Step 4: Permutation of the last layer (PLL)

### Step 1: cross

As with the LbL method, the first step is to form the white cross.
Since you have to be good at the beginner's method in order to learn the Fridrich method, you can solve the cross without any further instructions (I guess).
Over time you also gain experience and will be able to solve the cross in a few moves and seconds.
As with the beginner's method, you now turn the cube over (advanced players solve the white cross at the beginning with the yellow side up).

### Step 2: First 2 layer (F2L)

The first two layers, as the name suggests, are the first two layers.
Since this is the most difficult, longest and at the same time most intuitive step of the Fridrich Method, this is the main part of this tutorial. Actually, after the cross, it is actually the only step that is solved intuitively and not according to algorithms!
The aim is to move a corner stone and an associated curb stone into a so-called slot. in plain text (or rather clear image) this means:

So you always have to put a corner and an edge in their slot. the whole four times and you are already done with the first two levels!
The best way to manage this is to solve the F2L completely intuitively. That means that you try to fill the slot yourself. But not everyone can do this, which is why I have again described a kind of "entry-level solution" here. With this entry-level solution you can solve the F2L and with a lot of practice you develop your own feeling for the cube (especially for the F2L) and should slowly find your own, faster solutions. (Please do not learn the F2L algorithms, intuitive is really better!).
But now to explain how you fill the slots in a relatively simple way.

2 main cases
There are exactly 2 main cases, i.e. two different arrangement combinations of corner + edge, in which we can simply fill the slot. When a pair is formed or if you would form the pair by 'opening' the slot.
 Couple present A pair is formed when the slot is opened The orange-white pair is already there, so we open the slot (here with R), insert our pair with U 'and close the slot again. The same works, of course, in mirror image, i.e. if the corner of the pair were not on the left but on the right and you had to open the left slot (with L '). This is the 2nd main case. Here the slot is opened with R and a pair is formed immediately! Now we bring the pair with U to the appropriate place and close the slot again with R '. This case and its reflection must also be blindly mastered! The mirror image in this case would be if the corner were to the left and the white side was to the left and the slot was opened with L '.

However, there are plenty more other cases! But an easy way is to simply bring all of these additional cases to the 2 main cases in order to fill the slots. I will now explain what all these cases are and how they are treated ...

1. Pair already in a slot, but wrong
If a pair is already in a slot, but is not correctly aligned (corner twisted and / or edge mirrored), then you must first bring this pair to the yellow level in order to be able to work with it. To do this, you simply open the slot, turn the pair away and close it again (please note that you turn the pair away so that no part of the pair gets back into the slot when you close it)

2. Corner or edge already in a slot
In this case, too, you first have to bring the missing piece back to the 'surface' in order to be able to work with it. (If you can still make a main case from stones that are already on the yellow side, then just continue there)
And here you have to make sure that when you pull out one stone you don't put the other back in the slot, but get both out!

3. Main case formation on the yellow level
Now things really start! Now you will learn how to form the main cases in order to fill the slot.
There are again 3 categories, which we are now working through piece by piece.
(assuming the corner is right / front / top)

A) white sticker points to the front

if the white side of the corner looks to the front, then there are again 2 subcases, but they are easy ...
So if white points to the front and the upper colors of edge and corner (the colors that are visible on the yellow layer) are the same, then you have to bring the edge between U and R to create main case 1. However, if the 2 colors are different (2nd picture), then you have to generate main case 2 ... For all of this you have to 'hide' the corner first. This means that you move the corner away from the yellow plane in order to be able to place the edge.
Assuming the slot between F and L is still empty, then we can hide the corner with F. Then position the edge correctly with [U to generate main case 1 - U 'to generate main case 2] and finally bring up the corner again with F' (and close the open slot).
Sometimes you have to hide the edge with R ', whereby the slot between R and B has to be empty. If you can't hide a corner, because that would get a slot out again, then you can simply do Dw or Dw 'until there is an empty slot at the desired place!
However, the edge does not always have to lie between U and B, it can also lie between U and L, for example. However, if it is right next to the corner and no main case exists yet, then you have to separate these stones from each other first, for example:
 Here you would have to put the curb between U and R, but if you hide the corner with F, then you also hide the edge and that doesn't do much. That's why you first have to hide the corner with R ', turn the edge away to separate the 2 stones and turn the corner up again. Then you can hide the corner with F and continue as usual to form main case 1 ...
 But: Here you don't have to separate the stones beforehand, because you have to create main case 2 and the edge can also be brought to the right place. With a little practice it will work all by itself;)

B) white sticker points to the right

Here it is actually exactly the same as in A. Just a mirror image! You would just have to form main case 1 or main case 2 mirror-inverted.
Well I hope you can do that yourself;)

B) white sticker points upwards

if the white sticker points upwards, then the corresponding edge must first, as you can see in the pictures, to the left of it, i.e. between U and L.
Then there are again 2 subcases, how to build main case 1 (main case 1 is always built here). First you turn the upper level so that the edge forms a vertical line ...

Now from a different angle ... you have to look at the colors of the corner and edge that look outwards:

Let's leave it at this point of view ... (green = front F), in this case the colors are the same, so we form the pair with F U F ',
if the colors are different, then we form the pair with F 'U2 F.
IMPORTANT: Please do NOT remember these algorithms! Just look carefully what movements you make with it! If you only learn algorithms stubbornly by heart, then this is no longer intuitive solving and you may run into problems later;)
So here it can of course also be the case that you have to separate the 2 stones beforehand, but now you should be able to loosen the F2L!
Practice so that you can memorize the F2L quickly and without errors, but now let's go to the remaining 2 steps ...

Another hint from me: if you only have one slot to fill, then you can only use this to hide corners. Some have problems with it;)

### Step 3: Orientation of the last layer (OLL)

As the name suggests, you have to orientate the last level, which means that you tilt and turn all the stones so that the top is only yellow. It does not matter whether the stones are correctly arranged one below the other.
There are algorithms for that. You have an algorithm for every 'case' that can arise. Look exactly in which directions the yellow pages are pointing and run the appropriate algorithm.
For the sake of simplicity and clarity, you should first learn the so-called 2-Look OLL, so you do the normal OLL in 2 steps.

### Step 4: Permutation of the last layer (PLL)

In the last step we have to permute the stones, that is, nothing more than swap them. So you look which stones still have to be swapped (the upper level may also have to be rotated beforehand) and look for the right algorithm again.
Just have a look at the Fridrich PLL's and possibly write it down or print it out!
Since you cannot learn all algorithms at once, it makes sense to first learn the algorithms of the 2-Look PLL and then to achieve 'full PLL' bit by bit, i.e. to master all 21 PLL's.

So I hope you have understood the Fridrich Method halfway and if you have any questions, please post them in the forum or send me an email to [email protected]!