Is Tiruppur harder than Erode
Cheap is too expensive. Fair working conditions for everyone.
1 campaign family fast day 2013 sharing makes you strong terre des hommes / jörg Böthling / agenda cheap is too expensive. Fair working conditions for everyone. Makeshift for development education work for children, adolescents and adults Information, methods and advice on topics and projects
2 sharing makes you strong For the 56th Family Fast Day campaign, sharing work fairly was the title of the educational aid of the Catholic women's movement in 1998. The kfb posed the question of what work is and put women's work, the unpaid / less paid and invisible domestic and care work, in the center and demanded the right to work. In the following year, under the title Share Bread and Roses, the kfb focused on working and production conditions in the clothing industry and called for fair working conditions worldwide. For this year's Family Fast Day campaign, fourteen years later, the kfb is taking up the topic of work under the title Cheap is too expensive. Fair working conditions for everyone. back on. Based on an exploitative work model in India, the Sumangali Scheme, working conditions and labor rights of Indian girls and women in the context of cotton production are explained and the work of a kfb project partner in India is described. In view of global developments and crises, the demands have remained the same: to rethink the concept of work, equal pay for equal work and fair working conditions, as anchored in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 23). In all these years the kfb has not tired of making these demands and raising its voice for women in countries of the global south. You too can support the Family Fast Day campaign and show solidarity with women and their families in Asia, Latin America and Africa! Ruth Ankerl Aktion Familienfasttag Member of the management of the kfbö The donations for the Aktion Familienfasttag go to selected and well-supported projects. If materials from the campaign are used, we ask you to send the donations collected during the activities to the family fast day campaign. Account number:, PSK (BLZ 60000) Contents Cheap is too expensive. Fair working conditions for all work. Freedom and Necessity ... 4 Maid in India The Sumangali Scheme as a building block in the system of global labor exploitation ... 7 Project India Women Work Project Philippines The Sumangali Scheme in Austria? Would that be possible? .. 22 Methods for children Methods for young people and adults Additional links Addresses Imprint ... 32 Further materials for the Family Fast Day 2013 campaign, modules for the design of church services Family Fast Day magazine, posters, leaflets, donation cubes 2 Family Fast Day 2013 campaign
3 Cheap is too expensive. Fair working conditions for everyone. Cheap is too expensive. Fair working conditions for everyone. by Milena Müller-Schöffmann Inexpensive, inexpensive, inexpensive, almost free, given for free with these words, consumers are enticed to buy products and services. From cheap flights to cheap branded clothing collections. Everything is available at all times and is for sale cheaper than ever! How these offers come about, so that mass production can take place, the purchase decision is easy and as much as possible can be consumed at any time, is only of interest to a few. Word has meanwhile got around that, for example, cheap food is produced at the expense of the environment and one's own health. Organically and regionally produced is a quality feature. But what kind of quality label is it when the work that goes into a product is fairly rewarded? What difference does it make if my T-shirt is not only made from organic cotton, but also under fair working conditions? The fact that production takes place at the expense of other people is seldom visible and hardly influences purchase decisions, which are mostly spontaneous. However, fair working conditions are a quality feature that has been demanded by trade unions and civil society not only in this country but also around the world for many years. Because cheap production is too expensive! The Sumangali Scheme in India shows how high this price is. The article Maid in India explains how girls and young women end up in exploitative working conditions through false promises and what this has to do with traditional role models of women and men. The article Maid in India explains the Sumangali Scheme as a building block in the context of global labor exploitation. (see p. 7) Why the Sumangali Scheme would not be feasible in Austria and why it exists in India despite appropriate labor rights, experts answer on p does not automatically contribute to an environment in which the economic, social and physical security of migrants is guaranteed. The description of a kfb project in the Philippines for migrants and the reports from women affected bring closer what the feminization of migration and work means. (see p. 19) Much of the care work performed worldwide is not just cheap but also unpaid, the lion's share of which is done by women. Facts on exploitative child labor and the employment of women, as well as a definition of what is decent work according to the ILO (Int. Labor Organization), give a global insight into the world of work. Fair working conditions for everyone. This has been a longstanding requirement of the kfb. Because if woman takes a look at these facts with regard to female employment worldwide and / or in Austria, the promise of gender equality through increasing female employment with constant belief in economic growth and the logic of the market will not be kept. Perspectives are in demand and require a rethink and appropriate action. An example of this rethinking is the decoupling of work and income through a basic income. Acting and helping to shape the future of work is what Christine Ax demands in her contribution to the efforts and identification with work in the course of time. (see p. 4) Work is half of life and the other half too. (Erich Kästner: Citizens protect your systems. In: Collected stories for adults, Bd.1 Gedichte. Munich 1969, p.132 f.) Acting and taking responsibility, paying the actual price and not consuming at the expense of others, that is accordingly only fair. Because in the end, cheap is too expensive. Taking a far-sighted approach to trading and buying fairly manufactured clothing is only one of the alternatives for action. Campaigns and further links on the topic can be found under Get active. (see p. 30) Methods for children, adolescents and adults should encourage them to deal with the topic. The terms on the topic of work are varied and without claim to completeness and can be read or looked up in the course of the makeshift. Family fast day campaign
4 work. Freedom and necessity of work. Freedom and Necessity by Christine Ax Arbeit We understand best what work is to us when we illuminate the word and the realities hidden behind it from the perspective of freedom and necessity. This applies to every individual and to societies. The philosopher Hanna Ahrendt described three basic types of activity in her book Vita activa Vom aktivigen Leben 1: work, manufacture and action. Work are all activities that are necessary to keep ourselves, our families or communities in metabolism with nature. The free Greek citizen preferred leisure (otium) to work and took pride in not having to go about business (negotium). He gave himself entirely to the community, the public cause and personal improvement. This privilege was a man's business. The prerequisites were possession of the land and the slaves who worked it. The wife organized family life, the private öikos, discreetly in the background. For most people, however, work has remained a daily and lifelong struggle with the forces of nature from ancient times to modern times. The fact is: the social history of work is still full of suffering and oppression to this day. But what was worse than the struggle with nature was always the social conditions, the above and below. Many paid a high price for the leisure less. It is not the effort that makes things difficult for us. And neither is the fact that they repeat themselves. The fact that efforts are voluntarily undertaken and even make you happy can be observed in sports studios, while gardening, on the football field or while hiking: sweat flows freely. As a reward, there be (and are enough), depending on the circumstances, social recognition, the shine of the eyes of loved ones, health, lightness, strength or mastery. It is not the degree of exertion that determines whether something becomes work for us, whether it is good for us or even fun. Aspects such as meaning, recognition, social status, the well-being of the family or community and, closely related to this, the aspect of freedom are decisive. 1 Hannah Ahrendt: Vita activa or From active life. Stuttgart Christian Graf von Krockow: Coming home to luxury. About the need for the superfluous. Small library of leisure. Zurich Worth the Effort The history of cultures and the arts is full of impressive evidence that a lot is worth the effort to us, beyond the mere necessity, in freedom. The second type of activity is manufacturing, which characterizes the Homo Faber type. This means the craftsmen, the artists and the entrepreneurs in us. This part of us loves to change and shape the world, wants to become real, to develop and grow. We meet the Homo Faber everywhere: as a figure of the past in arts and crafts museums, art exhibitions and technical museums and in the present in the blacksmith, in engineering offices, in the creative industries and in architecture. Beyond necessity, individual people and cultures have created an infinite amount of art, beautiful and great things. You can study this particularly well in folklore and local history museums, in which one thing catches the eye: the need to shape the world and the superfluous. The care and effort that people gave themselves to shape even simple things in life according to their personal ideas. It was not just the prince who loved luxury and waste. It was also worth the effort for the rural population, the part-time handicraftsman, to decorate their own world and celebrate life. Because as paradoxical as it may sound: nothing was and is more necessary to us than what is superfluous. The luxury of the superfluous is necessary for us because it is necessary for us to rise above life's necessities in a self-determined way from time to time. 2 The big machine The triumphant advance of industry was based on the decline of feudal ways of living and thinking. The end of the ancien regime was the end of courtly luxury and courtly culture. Not only the representatives of the old order died on the guillotines of the revolution. The superfluous, the luxury and the refinement were also on trial and fell under the wheels. The rising bourgeoisie worshiped another god: rationalism. The Esprit Cartésien elevates the straight line as the shortest connection between two points to the all-dominating principle. The alternative to the courtly world was: sobriety, thrift and, above all, diligence. 4 Family Fast Day 2013 campaign
5 work. Freedom and Necessity Because: Those who work do not sin. Idleness is the beginning of all vice, and money should no longer primarily beautify life or should at best be wasted in order to increase one's own fame. Money became capital. And because it is in the nature of capital that it has to work for those who own capital and shares, but cannot do it itself, necessary work was done by those who were without capital. At the end of the Enlightenment the triumph of the machine world began. It led, first in England and a little later throughout Europe, to the triumph of the factory over the craft. The rural population and the free craftsmen with their highly qualified journeymen did not voluntarily submit to the efficiency paradigm of the big machine. In order for the chimneys to smoke in rapidly growing metropolitan areas, the rural population had to be driven from the clod. For the craftsmen and journeymen, the factory was a place of dequalification. Countless craftsmen and journeymen had to experience that their great craftsmanship was no longer in demand in the factories. The (day) work and their craftsmanship no longer counted. In the factories, the steam hammer and soon the assembly line set the pace. Under the regime of automation, the number of skilled workers in industrial production has been falling steadily since the 1970s. Nowhere, nowhere? The story of social utopias tells us that people could work and live differently beyond the social realities that are always sold as having no alternative. Thomas More, inventor of this literary genre, describes in his book Utopia in 1516 a society in which six hours of work per day are sufficient. 3 And William Morris' little novel Kunde von Nirgendwo 4 already puts the dilemma of the labor society in a nutshell at the end of the 19th century. The place of longing he describes is post-industrial in the best sense of the word. Its citizens fought for their right to work from a paternalistic, technocratic state in a peaceful revolution. They dedicate themselves again to the activities that are personally good for them and that serve the community and socializing. Your creed: We have nothing against machines and technology where they are necessary. But we reject machines, i.e. the industrial principle, where they are no longer necessary. The desire for self-determined work has been a central motif of new social movements and alternative lifestyles since the triumphant advance of industry and capitalism as a result of ubiquitous foreign control. Where a self-determined life in harmony with nature was not only longed for, but also dared, it not only changed the living conditions of those who got out, but also the world. 5 From the Necessities of Abundance The rise of industry and the victory of capitalism to the complete penetration and subjugation of all areas of life required two things: the liberation from one's own means of production and the re-education of people into consumers. Industry and consumption are two sides of the same coin. They depend on each other. If Europe's citizens stopped consuming overnight, our economy and banking system would be at an end immediately. When industry was still in its infancy, many associated the powerful new tools with a bold dream: By the end of this journey, alienated work would be superfluous. But the new type of capitalism is proving to be a diabolical plan: The more efficient and productive we are, the more necessary, under the conditions of globalization, to participate in and succeed in the world of work, to secure a livelihood and a family, for a good life, social recognition and personal happiness. Work has never been as valuable to those who have a job as it is today. A world full of paradoxes and new necessities emerged under the sign of maximum efficiency and profitability. What was rational under the conditions of early capitalist distress turns out to be a dangerous global risk today under the conditions of late industrial abundance. Economic efficiency is not necessarily effective for society as a whole. Where the economy forces everything under its logic, new ecological risks and painful experiences grow today. This applies not only to nature, but also to the world of work. 6 3 Thomas More: Utopia. A revised translation, backgrounds, criticism. 3rd ed. New York William Morris: Customer of Nowhere. A utopia of the perfect communist society and culture from Neu ed. From Gerd Selle. Cologne The organic movement and the pioneers of wind and solar energy as well as ecological building emerged from the alternative movement of the 1970s and 80s. 6 Franz Schultheis / Berthold Vogel / Michael Gemperle (eds.): Half a life. Biographical evidence from a working world in upheaval. Konstanz Aktion Familienfasttag
6 work. Freedom and the need to work at the border: what can grow? The psychologist Abraham H. Maslow (), who became known for his hierarchy of needs, already knew that the hierarchy of human needs is open at the top. The nagging factor catches up with us humans again and again. Beyond the satisfaction of our basic needs and a life without shame, it is neither money nor consumption that will make you permanently satisfied. The desire for family, health, friends, community and meaningful, good work comes more to the fore than ever. Sustainable, this is the message of many influential economists and philosophers of our time 7, is a society that enables all people to live their abilities and to allow them to flourish.It is obvious that in a world with limited resources there is no limitless growth. Well-known experts now agree: Up to 80 percent of today's energy and raw material consumption must be saved by 2050. Our prosperity should no have to become many times leaner. How can that work? What are the consequences for the world of work? What kind of work should we do in the future, what can we still buy and consume without endangering the existence of future generations? What should we be able to do to shape the future? How can we realize the desire for a good life without losing sight of the necessities? Without a rethink in terms of work, this is certain, the transition to a more sustainable economy and way of life cannot succeed. We still have a choice. Beyond the limits of growth, beyond self-produced imperfections and necessities, there is the space of the possible. A future in which people are allowed to waste and live their skills and abilities beyond senseless efficiency paradigms at work and beyond work. A world in which we as people and cultures are not only allowed to live and grow well within boundaries, but can also do so. 8 Indeed, for the first time in the history of work, it is not only possible, but also necessary from a superordinate point of view, to recognize and appreciate the value of the supposedly superfluous, the non-rational. We are on the trail of true prosperity when we meet active people who, in freedom, what they do is worth the effort. Action Which, after Hannah Ahrendt, brought us to the third category of work: action. This means the public space that we as citizens consciously or unconsciously help to shape. Whatever the future of work may look like, if we do not take an active part in negotiating this question of the future, this exercise will not succeed. The full text by Christine Ax, German philosopher, economist and author, appeared in the catalog for the exhibition in work at the Technisches Museum Wien in 2011 and was kindly made available for printing by Ms. Ax. Dare to change perspective The paradigm of efficiency only makes sense to a limited extent in relation to human life. We come to the greatest possible happiness for the greatest possible time with our desperate keep it up! not closer. Chasing after the long-obsolete utopia of a society that is based on the principle of ever-faster-ever-more endangers the existence of many people and threatens the future of our children. 7 Representing many: Amartya Sen: Economy for people. Paths to Justice and Solidarity in the Market Economy. Munich 2000; Tim Jackson: Prosperity without growth. Living and doing business in a finite world. Munich Christine Ax: The able society. With good work out of the crisis. Berlin Family Fast Day 2013 campaign
7 Maid in India The Sumangali Scheme Maid in India * The Sumangali Scheme as a component in the system of global labor exploitation by Eva Dürr * Title of a study published by SOMO (Center for Research on Multinational Corporations) and ICN (India Committee of the Netherlands) From the beginning textile processing in India as a colony to global competition. Tamil Nadu is the center of cotton mills. The yarn is produced for the Indian market as well as for export. The switch from male to female workers in the cotton mills only took place over the past ten years. It is also due to global wage and price dumping. Traditionally, textile production was and is one of the most important industries in India. It goes back to the 19th century. back when the country was under British colonial rule. Even the colonial rulers discovered that there were locational advantages if they relocated the production of fabrics to India. Today the textile industry accounts for around 20% of the country's total industrial production and employs 35 million people. In 2010, textiles and clothing were India's second largest export. Their share was 12% of the total export volume, after 14% oil and petroleum products and before 11% chemical products. The main export countries are the United Arab Emirates, USA, China, Singapore and Great Britain. In recent years, the textile industry in India has come under great pressure. China and Bangladesh are increasingly gaining ground in the international textile trade because they produce even cheaper. As a result, business for Indian suppliers has declined. Of course, this also has an impact on working conditions and wages. The processing steps in the textile industry are structured as follows: cotton production, cotton spinning, weaving, dyeing and sewing of the garments, with a large number of individual production steps taking place in this last area. All of these industries exist in India. They are important industries and employers. Tamil Nadu has always been the area of cotton mills. 43% of the larger and almost 80% of the smaller spinning mills are located in the southern Indian state. Overall, that's what makes cotton mills. The local centers of cotton mills are in the districts of Coimbatore, Dindigul, Erode, Karur, Salem and Tirupur. Tamil Nadu is also known for the production of woven cotton fabrics. These are still made today with both hand looms and weaving machines. Local centers are located in Bhavani, Coimbatore, Erode, Karur, Namakkal and Salem districts. The processing into clothing takes place in Chennai and Tirupur. In some sources Tirupur is already referred to as T-Shirt City, which indicates the primary economic activity. The yarns spun from the cotton are processed for both the domestic and the international market. After research, the Fair Labor Association concludes that less than 30% of the yarns are processed for export. This means that not only the internationally known retail chains benefit from labor exploitation, but that Indian companies are also responsible for disregarding existing labor laws. The competition is tough To stay in the race, production costs have to be reduced or kept low. One consequence of this principle is the search by factory owners for cheap and willing labor. In the past ten years, this has led to a targeted shift in recruiting to female and flexible workers. Women are less interested in joining a union. According to Indian law, they must be paid the same wages as men. In practice, however, this is not the case. Women are also considered more docile and loyal, which makes them less likely to want to join unions, which are not allowed in the mills anyway. With regard to flexibility, the Hind Mazdoor Sabha union believes that 60% to 80% of workers in the textile and clothing industry are temporary workers, as this keeps wage costs low. Family fast day campaign
8 Maid in India The Sumangali Scheme The Sumangali Scheme as a glossing over name for an exploitative work model: girls and young women from impoverished backgrounds are the victims of it. Most of the girls in rural areas are hired by recruiters. You will receive a fixed amount for each recruited worker. The most tempting argument for the girls to work under the Sumangali Scheme is the lump sum payment. It is promised for the time after the contract expires. The girls need the money for their bride money. Poverty is behind various reasons that lead to entry into the spinning mills under the Sumangali Scheme. The reality of the work is different from the promises. The girls are locked up in hostels, contact with their families is controlled, the supply and hygienic conditions are poor. CEEM Now to the Sumangali Scheme. Sumangali is a Tamil word and describes the life of a married woman who spends her days happy and contented. The Sumangali Scheme is a working model that has been widespread in Tamil Nadu for about ten years. It is mainly practiced in cotton mills (over 80%). The name Sumangali Scheme is actually a euphemism. The work in the cotton mills is described as wonderful on posters and advertising slips: Bring us the lovely girls you know and make their lives shine like a lighthouse - certainly an image that is not very effective in our world, but for Indian girls a supposedly unique opportunity is being sold well to the poor. Almost 60% of the girls working under the Sumangali Scheme are Dalits. But what exactly does this working model mean? It is estimated that around 10,000 girls are currently working under the Sumangali Scheme in the Tamil Nadu cotton mills, where it is mainly used. Most recruiters hired by the factory owners come to poor rural families who cannot afford their daughters to attend school. Often the girls only go to school until they are 12 years old. After that, school attendance is chargeable. The recruiters receive 7 to 14 euros per hired worker. They make tempting promises: in addition to a job, there are three meals a day and safe and good accommodation in hostels for the workers. But best of all: at the end of the contract period of usually three, sometimes four or five years, the girls are offered a large sum of money (a flat rate of around 350 to 800 euros). Since for many girls this is the only perspective on the urgently needed bride money, the Sumangali Scheme appears to them both as a temptation and as an alternative with no alternative. The law prohibits the husband's family from collecting the bride's payment since 1961. Yet this practice persists. Getting married without paying bridal money is next to impossible for girls in India. Just like not being married. The social pressure to get married is very high for the girls in India. Many parents do not have to think twice about sending their daughters to the spinning mills. Girls are of little or nothing worth in Indian society. There are also girls who voluntarily enter factories under the Sumangali Scheme. They do so in the belief that they will be rewarded, well housed, and given the promised meals each day. The main motivation for the girls is to support the family financially. In a study on Sumangali commissioned by the kfb Aktion Familienfasttag, more than half of those questioned gave poverty as the reason for working under the Sumangali Scheme. For another quarter the answer was: dropping out of school. Over 13% thought they needed the money for the bride price. The reality of Sumangali The working reality of the girls looks different. As promised, you will be accommodated in hostels that are part of the factories. But in these accommodations they are more or less locked up and have to be available for work at any time of the day or night if necessary. Parental visits are regulated. Sometimes they are only allowed once a month. The same thing happens with the phone calls to your home, which are checked. Private conversations with the family are next to impossible. Incoming and outgoing letters are opened and read. The food doesn't live up to its promises either. The quality of the meals is poor and the quantities are too small. Those who come too late (because they still had to work) get nothing more. Leaving the hostels is sometimes possible: depending on the regulations, the girls may go into town once a week, every 14 days or every month in small groups with a guard, for example to do some shopping. The culturally justified excuse that girls and young women need special protection also serves as an excuse to prevent possible contact with outside people. The sanitary facilities in the hostels are usually very problematic. The number of toilets and washrooms is too few and the conditions are unsanitary. There are often a few toilets for several hundred workers. These conditions are clearly illegal, because the corresponding regulation provides for one toilet for every 25 workers.
9 Maid in India The Sumangali Scheme Most of the salaries paid are below the statutory minimum wage level. Forced and unpaid overtime. Accidents, fatigue, illnesses and the refusal to pay the lump sum complete the picture of the Sumangali Scheme. The Sumangali Scheme is one of many building blocks in global labor exploitation. The systematic discrimination against women in India contributes to the preservation of the working model. It is difficult to make a general statement about salaries as they vary from company to company. Deductions are made for food and the Sumangali flat rate. In the study mentioned above, the salaries of 38.4% of those affected are less than 1,000 rupees per month. That's a little over 14 euros. Another third received up to 1,500 rupees per month, the equivalent of just under 22 euros. There are also cases in which girls were paid wages in the first few months, but not afterwards. In at least 50% of the cases, the wages are below the legally fixed minimum level. A large proportion of the girls have to work overtime. That ranges from four to eight hours following an eight-hour shift. This means that workers may come to a daily working time of 12 to 16 hours. According to the law, the maximum working day for an adult is nine hours. If the average daily working time actually worked is assumed to be twelve hours, this results in a working week of 72 hours. The maximum legally permitted weekly working time is 48 hours. Many workers also report that they have been taken from their quarters at any time of the day or night in order to process urgent or large orders if necessary. By law, employers are obliged to pay for overtime worked in accordance with the regulations on weekend or night working hours. In the majority of cases this does not happen. It is no wonder that accidents occur more frequently with such excessive workloads. Especially when machines are poorly maintained and also because the girls' training on the machines is inadequate. In the study mentioned above, 74 girls of the respondents had accidents, but only four of them received compensation. The distribution of protective clothing such as breathing masks, caps or aprons is very economical. The most common symptoms of fatigue and illnesses include: headache, leg and back pain, menstrual problems, weaknesses, diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract, and fevers. Health problems usually cause the girls to leave the factory before the end of their contractual working hours. As a result, the Sumangali lump sum payment is refused. There are also drastic cases where girls have been driven to suicide given the working and living conditions under the Sumangali Scheme. Value creation at the expense of women In conclusion, the Sumangali Scheme is part of the global value chain in the textile industry, in which the value for some is unfortunately created at the expense of the other. It is also not surprising that this form of perfidious exploitation comes to fruition in India. According to a relatively new study, India is the most misogynistic country among the major industrialized nations (Der Standard, July 14, 2012). Discrimination against women is systemically anchored here. From the abortion of female fetuses to the widow burns, there are numerous misogynist traditions that are practiced unchanged despite the illegality. The very fact that a boy is called apana dhan in Hindi, which means as much as he owns himself, and a girl parayadhan, which means something that belongs to someone else, speaks volumes. Of course, there are women in India nowadays in so-called top positions in politics, science and other fields. But they are exceptions. 92% of Indian women work in the informal sector, most of them in agriculture, domestic workers or textile workers in urban areas. (Frauensoli, 2/2009) The majority of girls are still married in childhood, receive neither higher education nor vocational training and have to accept physical abuse as a normal part of everyday life. Despite India's rise to a global economic power, the systematic discrimination against women in society as a whole has not changed. The Sumangali Scheme is an example of this. It is even part of it. Family fast day campaign
10 India Advocacy for Young Women Sumangalis Project profile Title: Advocacy for Young Women Sumangalis Project number: F11 / 00155 Country information on India Area: km 2 (world rank 7) Population: (2011); 365 / km 2 (Ö: 100.2 / km 2) Capital: New Delhi Official languages: Hindi, English, 17 regional languages with equal rights Currency: Indian rupee (ir) 1 euro is 71.15 ir Life expectancy: 67.14 Women: 68. 33 / Men: 66.08 (2012) (Austria: 79.91, Women: 82.97 / Men: 77 (2012) Human Development Index: 134 (Austria: 19) Sources: Der Fischer Weltalmanach Numbers. Data. Facts. The original.Frankfurt / M. 2010; Human Development Report UNDP., Wikipedia, CIA The World Factbook The project of the organization Vaan Muhil The South Indian partner organization of the kfb, Vaan Muhil (in Tamil cloudy sky, which is a pleasant natural event in a dry region) has been working in the field of human rights since 1996. As the problem of disastrous working conditions for women in the cotton mills became more acute, the organization decided to take up the issue and in 2010 the organization held a series of seminars and workshops on human rights violations under the Sumangali Scheme. The target groups were mainly representatives of NGOs and grassroots civil society organizations. In October 2009, Vaan Muhil took part in a public hearing organized by the Women's Commission in Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu. As there were more and more reports about the Sumangali Scheme from various NGOs, the Women's Commission was prompted to hold this event. On this occasion, Vaan Muhil presented 15 cases of Sumangali victims. In May 2010, our partner organization took part in a state-level conference that was attended by more than 200 victims of the Sumangali Scheme as well as representatives from NGOs, grassroots movements and trade unions. In order to document the many facets of Sumangali and to grasp the size of the problem, Vaan Muhil finally carried out a study on the Sumangali Scheme with financial support from the kfb-Aktion Familienfasttag. In advance, the organization tried to create a network with NGOs, trade unions and human rights organizations in the four southern districts of Tamil Nadu, in which a total of people were then interviewed. The majority of those questioned were former spinning mill workers. Parents, siblings, and other family members were also interviewed. Almost 80% of the respondents were younger than 18 years, which is indicative of the age group affected by the Sumangali Scheme. The results of the study coincide with data from other human rights networks and provide important arguments in support of the social and political demands made on the government of Tamil Nadu and the business community. Internationally, the study is already cited as a reference document. A German-language summary of the study can be downloaded from the website of Aktion Familienfasttag (. DEEPS legal efforts by Vaan Muhil) The study is now being used locally by Vaan Muhil and other organizations as an advocacy tool pursued: Vaan Muhil wants the 10th Family Fast Day 2013 campaign among key stakeholders
11 India Young Women Advocacy for Sumangali Raising awareness that the Sumangali Scheme is unjust and how to counter it. Our partner organization uses the acquired expertise and the network created with trade unions, NGOs, grassroots groups and various university institutes. The focus of the work is on the following questions: What are the legal bases? Which working conditions can be demanded? And what has to change in the socio-political context so that girls no longer find themselves in such exploitative working conditions? Not to be forgotten is the support for victims of the Sumangali Scheme. Vaan Muhil is currently providing legal counsel for 12 girls and women who have been cheated out of their compensation payments. A conference on Sumangali took place. Vaan Muhil After the presentation of the study, three workshops were held at the district level with a total of 185 participants from NGOs, CSOs (= civil society Vaan Muhil draws public attention to the grievances in the textile industry. Vaan Muhil Vaan Muhil organizations) and trade unions. There were also several meetings with important stake holders, including representatives of the government, who were given a memorandum on the grievances in the textile industry. Vaan Muhil also ensured a strong presence of the topic in the local media. A state-level conference was held in early August 2012. About women from rural areas attended the conference. Half of them were victims of the Sumangali Scheme. Activists and experts on women's and children's rights also took part. The various presentations dealt with the Sumangali topic from various perspectives and unanimously raised the demand for the abolition of this work model, which is destroying the lives of many girls in Tamil Nadu. A joint resolution with 18 points was passed at the conference. Among other things, the political leaders called for the control of new work models, compliance with the existing labor legislation and the establishment of committees against sexual assault in the factories. The government should urge the factories to pay the Sumangali lump sum to those workers who have been cheated on it. A sustainable concept for creating jobs for young people in the drought-ridden southern districts is also required. In a number of points it is necessary to adapt the national laws to the international legislation of the ILO. The age limit for child labor is to be raised from 14 to 18 years. The media are also held accountable and asked to contribute to the campaign and awareness work against Sumangali. The resolution was forwarded to the Ministry of Labor. As part of the follow-up activities, family fasting took place about three weeks after the action
12 India Young Women Advocacy Sumangalis conference held a state consultation. A total of 70 people from 34 organizations were involved. Representatives of human rights and women's organizations, grassroots movements, trade unions, the local government, academics and students decided to start a major campaign aimed at abolishing the Sumangali Scheme. There will be a massive signature campaign, workshops and seminars at the district and state levels, as well as numerous other activities aimed at raising awareness among parents in the country. Vaan Muhil has taken on the task of coordinating the campaign. Vaan Muhil Vaan Muhil is coordinating a campaign to abolish the Sumangali Scheme. What is child labor? According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, child labor is forbidden if it is dangerous or bad for health, if the children cannot go to school, if it damages their physical, mental or social development. Slavery, the use of children under the age of 18 as soldiers, child trafficking, child prostitution and child pornography, drug trafficking or other illegal activities are expressly prohibited. Children have the right to go to school and get an education. But you also have the right to play and relax. But that doesn't mean that children don't have to lift a finger after school. Of course, they can and should help at home. When they are 14 years old, they can work for up to three hours a day in the family business or, with the permission of their parents, also work for money. However, the work must be easy and suitable for children and young people. Above all, the school must not be neglected. According to new estimates by UNICEF, almost every sixth child between the ages of five and 14 works worldwide, that is around 158 million. For a starvation wage, they are employed in agriculture, as street vendors or servants, and all of this under conditions that seriously damage their health and development. These children not only have to help their families with household chores or in the fields, many of them toil for hours in factories and factories. Most children work because their parents are too poor to support the family on their own. Many of them even earn the money for the whole family. This is usually good business for employers: children are much easier to exploit and less likely to contradict. They get less money and therefore find work more often than adults. Simply banning child labor is therefore not a solution. If the children were to lose their jobs, their families would no longer have any money. Children who are not allowed to work have to beg or steal. The most important thing is to create better working conditions for the children and at the same time to give them the opportunity to go to school. In any case, forced labor, violence and exploitative labor must be prevented and punished. Some facts and figures: Around 8.4 million girls and boys worldwide have a particularly bad fate: They are exploited as child soldiers, debt servants or forced laborers. At least one million children are sexually abused every year in Asia alone. Most of the working children live in sub-Saharan Africa. 69 million girls and boys between the ages of five and 14. There are 66 million child laborers in South and East Asia and 12 million in South America. Child labor is often barely visible. Tens of thousands of children do not appear in any statistics. They toil in households, collect rubbish and / or shine shoes and are nowhere registered. Others are used as drug couriers. Many working children are not paid. House maids in particular often get nothing more than food and shelter. UNICEF 2009 More under Even if child labor has fallen worldwide, according to the ILO (2008), a contrary trend can be observed in Asia. While the number of working children between 5 and 14 years has fallen, the number of working children between 15 and 17 years has increased by 2.5% (10.5 million). 12 Family Fast Day 2013 campaign
13 India Young Women Lawyers Sumangalis Supitha is 15 years old, a Dalit girl from the village of Thiruppani Karisalkulam in the Tirunelveli district. She went to school up to 7th grade. Her father is a day laborer in agriculture, and she lost her mother in her senior year at school. After her mother's death, Supitha had to take over the housework and take care of the seven-year-old sister. The family situation and poverty forced the girl to drop out of school. A recruiter from the city of Tirunelveli persuaded the father to send Supitha to the Surya Prabha spinning mill in Kuniyamputhur, near Coimbatore, in 2010. Being illiterate and looking for every bit of money, he agreed to send his daughter to the cotton mill under the Sumangali Scheme. The contract lasted over a year and the promised lump sum was rupees (EUR 291). The father was also informed that the workers would receive good food and adequate accommodation. The safety of the girls who worked in the spinning mill was also guaranteed. Since four other girls from the village also went to the spinning mill, Supitha decided to go with her in order to save the family with the money she had earned. She came to the factory on February 22, 2010. She and her father signed the contract without knowing the contents. They did not receive a copy of the contract. Vaan Muhil The reality as Sumangali looked very different for Supitha than promised: In the first three months she was classified as an apprentice and earned 1000 rupees / month. Only then was she classified as a regular worker with 2000 rupees / month (EUR 29 / month). However, this included having to work overtime five days a week, which was deducted from her wages if she did not comply. If they came too late, made the slightest mistake or refused to work overtime, the girls were threatened with insults and physical assault on the part of the guards. One day when Supitha's fingers got caught in the machine, she was screaming and, despite the pain, only treated with a simple tincture of iodine and forced to continue working after an hour's break. In the event of illness, Supitha and the other girls were not allowed to see a doctor. They only received pills whose content and effect they were not aware of and which were deducted from their salary. Even if a hospital visit was inevitable, these costs were charged directly. After a hospital stay, Supitha had to pay the costs herself and work in the sick leave day again. About 200 girls lived in the shabby hostel in the spinning mill, Supitha lived in a small room with 11 other girls. On Sundays and during the days off, Supitha and the other girls had to clean the bedrooms and other rooms and help with cooking in the kitchen. The food was of poor quality, sometimes impossible to eat. Curry and vegetables came from the cheaply bought waste from the market. Contrary to promises to get food and accommodation free of charge, Supitha was deducted a fixed amount for room and board: 200 rupees for the room, 300 rupees for meals and 100 rupees for tea and drinks each month. On May 12, 2012, the manager suddenly contacted Supitha's father and asked him to pick up his daughter from the factory. He justified this with the girl's state of health. In fact, the contract term was over and the spinning mill should have paid out the Sumangali lump sum. When the father asked for the lump sum to be paid out, he was put off for another day. Management chose this tactic because it is practically impossible for poor people to travel 400 km repeatedly. Ultimately, Supitha received rupees (EUR 130) in addition to the monthly wages, which was less than agreed. After she returned home, she received treatment for her ailments. She is still struggling with the damage to her health that work in the spinning mill has caused. (Excerpt from a case study by Vaan Muhil, Tamil Nadu / India; translation: Eva Dürr) Family fast day campaign
14 India Young Women Lawyers Sumangalis Muthu, 21 years old, started working under the Sumangali Scheme in 2005 at the Sri Lakshmi Venkateswara spinning mills, located in the Coimbatore district. She was recruited by an agent from the same village who promised her a reasonable monthly salary and the Sumangali lump sum of rupees (around 611 euros) after three years of contract work. Like other young women, she signed a few blank sheets of paper and typed pages. She was put under time pressure so that she could not grasp the contents of the papers. Having no idea of the matter at all, she didn't even ask about the circumstances. In addition, due to the poverty at home, she saw no other way out. During her time at the spinning mill, she had to work more than 12 hours a day, although the length of a shift was only eight hours according to the agreement. The forced overtime was not paid. The hostel didn't have decent food, using low quality vegetables and rice that were very cheap to buy in the local market. In some cases, waste was also recycled. Some girls reported finding bugs in their food. Others had to eat the leftovers from the previous day. Usually the portions were too small. Girls who came back late from shift ended up empty-handed. The conditions in the hostel were very poor, but due to her family situation, Muthu had to accept the difficulties and adapt. A certain amount was deducted from her monthly wages for food and accommodation, and she received a wage of only 500 rupees (around 7 euros) per month. Vaan Muhil Selvi, another girl from the same village, was mysteriously killed while she was working in the spinning mill. When Selvi's parents blamed the management of the spinning mill, all the girls who worked in the spinning mill from the same village were sent back home. After a few days, the girls went back to the spinning mill to resume work, but were no longer allowed in. They made several attempts to get back to work in order to meet their contract hours. But the management did not let her continue to work. She was denied payment of the Sumangali lump sum in rupees as well as other legally guaranteed social benefits such as Provident Fund 1, overtime and bonuses to which Muthu was entitled. Vaan Muhil then hired a lawyer for Muthu's case and sent a warning to the spinning mill. But this remained unanswered for a year. The victim made several attempts himself and turned to the spinning mill several times without success. On June 10, 2012, Muthu again turned directly to the factory owner, who again refused her the money and threatened her not to come back to the spinning mill. Ultimately, Vaan Muhil filed a lawsuit with the Coimbatore Labor District Court to collect all outstanding benefits and the lump sum. The organization acts as an interface between the victim and the lawyer hired to deal with the matter. The distance between Muthu's place of residence, the organization's project office in Tirunelveli and the labor court 400 km from Tirunelveli is just one of the many adversities that Vaan Muhil has to contend with. Lengthy judicial processes, excessive delay in answering inquiries and corrupt government officials are part of everyday life and stand in the way of the enforcement of and compliance with workers' rights. Muthu is still waiting for an answer from the spinning mill. (Excerpt from a case description by Vaan Muhil, translation: Eva Dürr) 1 P.F., is mandatory for every company with more than 20 employees. By law, 10% of the wages of both the employer and the employee in the P.F. paid in 14 Family Fast Day 2013 campaign
15 India Advocacy for Young Women Sumangalis Terms for Work Flexibility 1 (...) In the 1980s, industrial production conditions were reorganized. The guiding principle was flexible and integrated production instead of the previous rigidly linked production processes. The vision was that a perfectly controlled factory should be created through the use of computer-aided machines and systems. In addition, since the mid-1970s, due to declining economic growth and the change from seller to buyer market, competition and thus cost pressure increased, innovation cycles were shortened, product differentiation increased and increased readiness to deliver was required. This reorientation in the form of structural rationalization has led to changes in the field of work that have had socio-political effects. The flexibilization of working hours is a reaction to the constantly changing market requirements. Volume, organization and work intensity are determined by the production cycle. This leads to the introduction of flexible working time models (e.g. expansion of shift work, working time accounts) and a change in employment relationships: individual parts of the company that are not part of the company's core tasks are outsourced, e.g. the cleaning. This leads to core and marginal workforces with different tariffs. Temporary jobs are becoming the norm, and uncertainty and precariousness are the consequences. Flexibility also stands for a decentralized organization of production, with the aim of using human labor as comprehensively as possible and thus increasing productivity. However, this decentralization does not mean a redistribution of power. Although opened e.g. the expansion of teamwork or the restructuring of company units into profit centers room for maneuver and appears as greater freedom of choice at the individual level. On the other hand, however, this leads to an intensification of the exploitation of labor, since the subjectification of work undermines the collective representation of interests by trade unions and works councils. The term flexibilization is used in many contexts and is considered a key concept of neoliberal modernization policy, as a process of the neo-liberal globalization of the economy, which is always presented as a practical necessity. (...) 1 According to Ralf Ptak, In: ABC der Globalisierung. From old-age security to civil society, Scientific Advisory Board of attac, 2005 Well-educated Ilse M. Seifried well-educated as a girl, adapted as a woman, no revolutions and nothing else moved no laws broken all rules observed until I felt nothing, never learned to walk through walls myself Become a wall (from: Vom Wasser. Vienna (Guthman Peterson) Justice says there where wealth increases, Our being there is no longer denied through our work, Speaking against deceit and appearance. The voices should no longer be who feed on the work of others, on the culture of the gifts of progress, we want to have our share. Justice says, give way child, woman and man! We are too tired of bowing to the laws of the tyrannical power that one Because we damned silence for our calamity. Now that's enough of the silent complaint Now rise up the fight day, the fight we do not decide before we enjoy the same right. Justice says, Free the way child, woman and man! It concerns us all! To rob us of the dignity To increase the human coldness We do not want to allow it any longer And therefore stand firmly together For peace, prosperity, passion, health, happiness and willpower. We want to raise our voices So you have to give us the same. Justice says, Free the way child, woman and man! It concerns us all! (...) From: Sweet Susie and Tini Trampler (femous): Justice announces. (Women's suffrage song) From the CD: re: composed, workers' songs and songs about women's rights and struggles. MA 57 Women's Department of the City of Vienna, 2012 Family Fast Day campaign
16 Women's Work Women's Work Women are systematically discriminated against in relation to education, health care, work and access to and disposal of economic goods. Poverty often means that women cannot enjoy even their most basic rights. Be it access to clean water, hygiene, medical care and decent work. (see page 18) This can also mean that they are more exposed to violence and have no decision-making power. The majority of workers in the informal economy, in free export zones or in domestic work are women. It is estimated that 70% of the world's poor are female. Women earn less than men; according to an IGB study from 2009, the global gender pay gap is estimated at 20%. Women are repeatedly discriminated against when they apply for a loan and are mostly employed in insecure, precarious jobs and in the low-wage sector. In Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, eight out of 10 employed women are employed in insecure jobs, and global economic changes threaten their livelihoods even more. (See information on p. 21) The current financial crisis hits women particularly hard. In particular women who work in export-dependent industries in the countries of the global south or who, as migrants, provide a substantial part of the services in many countries. The ILO (International Labor Organization) estimated that the financial crisis is leading to increased unemployment. In many countries, however, the effects of the financial crisis extend beyond the loss of employment, as the majority of women worldwide work in the informal sector and are therefore not included in the official statistics. Economic institutions and political bodies rarely, if at all, consider gender inequalities, from the tax system, the budget to trade agreements. And with too few seats at the tables where economic decisions are made, women have little chance of influencing politics. 1 1 UN-Women, access terms for work Feminization of work 1 This term has been used by the ILO (International Labor Organization) since the 1980s and describes the worldwide growing proportion of women in employment. First and foremost, it was about the relocation of labor-intensive production from the industrialized nations to free trade zones in the countries of the Global South, in the sense of an international division of labor. In these countries, besides special conditions for export production, there were and still are cheap labor, mostly young women who come straight from their villages to the factories, are dexterous, persistent and disorganized. On the basis of the oversupply of cheap female workers, labor-intensive services (e.g. data processing, call centers) have been and are being outsourced from industrialized countries to countries in the global south. () Feminization of work includes the qualitative change in work. Through deregulation, the dismantling of both state control of economic activities and state regulation of market mechanisms, labor markets have become more flexible and forms of employment have been adapted to global conditions. The lowering of wage and non-wage costs is achieved through informal, unprotected, precarious employment. Women who are still defined as additional earners, who interrupt their employment biographies by giving birth, caring for children or the elderly, trying to reconcile work and family work by working part-time, find themselves disproportionately in such flexible forms of employment (). The majority of employed women in the south work informally, (), 83% of all part-time workers in Europe are women. () Feminization of work is in no way to be equated with equality on the labor market. Neither the wage differences between the sexes are smaller, nor has the segmentation of the labor market into jobs specific to women and men been broken up significantly. The increasing global demand for private services has also accelerated the feminization of migration. Since women's work has become largely accepted as a matter of course in Europe, North America, but also in some Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong, the need for housework and childcare has grown. There was therefore no new division of labor between men and women. Rather, services that were previously provided entirely unpaid by local women are increasingly being taken over by poorly paid migrant women who are mostly married and leave their families behind. Migrants, half of whom are female, are not recorded in official statistics and work at the lowest wages. () For example, the demand for Filipino domestic workers has risen steadily and with it the share of the Philippines in international migration. One of the reasons for this is that both the Philippine government and local placement organizations have been marketing Filipino women for decades as particularly caring, hardworking and reliable domestic workers or caregivers. (see p. 19, Philippinen project) 2 1 according to Christa Wichterich, In: ABC der Globalisierung. From old-age security to civil society, scientific advisory board of attac, Petra Dannecker: Der Aufbruch der Frauen, In: Immer nach der Arbeit. Migration in the age of globalization. Edition Le Monde Diplomatique, 4 / Family Fast Day 2013
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