What does hyperspectral mean

From panchromatic to hyperspectral

From panchromatic to hyperspectral

The main differences between panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral data acquisition are the width and number of recording tapes. While panchromatic sensors work with a single wide recording band, multi- and hyperspectral instruments have a larger number of narrower recording channels to increase the spectral resolution. Hyperspectral sensors can have up to several hundred recording tapes lying close together.

With such instruments, a continuous spectrum and thus a kind of “spectral fingerprint” of objects can be recorded. In this way, for example, different types of vegetation and different soil conditions can be differentiated on the basis of their characteristic absorption and reflection properties. The information density is so high that, for example, it is possible to differentiate between plant communities, sometimes even individual plant species or rock compositions, from a distance of several hundred kilometers. In addition, the health status of vegetation can be recorded using the reflection properties in the infrared range: healthy plants produce the leaf pigment chlorophyll, which is six times more reflective than the range of visible (and especially green) light in the infrared range.

This data is primarily used in geographical remote sensing and environmental sciences. Hyperspectral data are mostly not used for direct observation. Rather, they are evaluated and blended in complex mathematical processes together with other data sources. The information resulting therefrom about a property of the recorded area can then be displayed in thematic maps, for example biotope type distributions.