What qualifies as special needs


1. This one Action framework for pedagogy for special needs has been adopted by the World Conference on Education for Special Needs. It was organized by the Spanish government in cooperation with UNESCO and took place from June 7th to 10th, 1994 in Salamanca. The Intention of the framework of action is to permeate the policies as well as activities of governments, international organizations, national aid agencies, non-governmental organizations and other bodies in the implementation of the Salamanca Declaration on the Principles, Policy and Practice of Special Needs Education to guide. This framework is based on the one hand on the national experiences of the participating countries and on the other hand on resolutions, recommendations and publications of the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations, in particular on the Standard rules for equality between people with disabilities[1]. It also takes into account drafts, guidelines and recommendations from the five regional seminars that were held to prepare for the world conference.

2. That Every child's right to education was in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights publicly proclaimed and by the World declaration"Education for All" clearly affirmed. Every person with a disability has the right to express their wishes regarding their education, as far as this can be ascertained. Parents have the natural right to be informed of the form of education best suited to their children's needs, circumstances and concerns.

3. That Guiding principle, which underlies this framework, says that schools all children, regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other abilities. This should include disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or nomadic peoples, from linguistic, cultural or ethnic minorities as well as children from other disadvantaged marginalized groups or areas. These regulations create a number of challenges for school systems. In the context of this framework for action, the term "special educational needs" refers to all those children and young people whose needs arise from disabilities or learning difficulties. Many children encounter learning difficulties and therefore have special educational needs in the course of their school career. Schools need to find ways to successfully educate all children, including those with massive disadvantages and disabilities. There is a growing consensus that children and young people with special educational needs should be integrated into the curricula that are established for the majority of all children. That has to Inclusive schools concept guided. The challenge in inclusive schools is to develop child-centered pedagogy that is capable of successfully teaching all children, including those with severe disadvantages and disabilities. The value of such schools is not only that they can provide quality education to all students; Establishing them is an essential step in changing discriminatory attitudes, creating communities that welcome all, and developing an inclusive society. A change in the social perspective is imperative. For too long, the problems of people with disabilities have been caused by a disabling society that has paid more attention to their weaknesses than to their strengths.

4. Special needs education embodies the proven principles of good education that all children can benefit from. She assumes that human differences are normal, that learning must therefore be adapted to the needs of the child and not, conversely, the child should be guided by predetermined assumptions about the pace and type of learning process. A child-centered education is of benefit to all children and consequently to society as a whole. Experience has shown that it can significantly reduce drop-out and repetition rates, which are an essential part of many school systems, while at the same time ensuring a higher average performance. Child-centered education can help avoid the waste of resources and the shattering of hope, which too often is the result of poor teaching and a "watering-can" (the same for all) parenting mentality. In addition, child-friendly schools are the practice area for a society that is people-oriented and respects both differences and the dignity of all people.

5. This framework for action comprises the following sections:

I. The New Thinking in Education for Special Needs

II. Guidelines for action at national level

A. Politics and Organization

B. School factors

C. Recruitment and training of educational staff

D. External Support Systems

E. Priorities

F. Perspectives in the community

G. Resources Required

III. Guidelines for action at regional and international level

I. The New Thinking in Education for Special Needs

6. For the past two decades, it has been common in social policy to Inclusion and participation to promote and fight against segregation. Inclusion and participation are fundamental to both human dignity and the enjoyment and exercise of human rights. Within pedagogy, this is reflected in the development of strategies that seek to achieve real equality. The experience of many countries shows that the inclusion of children and young people with special needs works best in schools that are there for all children in a community. Under such conditions, children with special needs can achieve the best learning progress and the fullest social inclusion. Inclusive schools provide favorable conditions for equality and genuine togetherness. However, their success requires joint efforts, not only from teachers, but also from children, parents, families and volunteers. Reforming social institutions is not a purely technical task; it depends above all on the conviction, commitment and goodwill of all those who make up society.

7. That basic principle In inclusive school, it is important that all children learn together wherever possible, regardless of their difficulties or differences. Inclusive schools need to recognize and respond to the diverse needs of their students by adapting to different learning styles and speeds. They must ensure high-quality education for all through suitable curricula, organizational framework conditions, teaching methods and the use of materials as well as through partnerships with their communities. There should be a continuum of support and services to match the continuum of special needs encountered in any school.

8. In inclusive schools, children with special needs should each support get that she For your successful education need. Inclusive teaching is the most effective way of building solidarity between children with special needs and their classmates. Assigning children to special schools - or permanent special classes or departments within a school - should be the exception. This is only recommended in those rare cases where it can be clearly shown that teaching in a mainstream school class cannot meet the learning and social needs of a child or when it is necessary for the well-being of the child or other children.

9. The situation with regard to special schools varies greatly from country to country. For example, there are countries that have a well-established system of special schools for specific disabilities. Such schools can be valuable Resources for the development of inclusive schools represent. The staff of these institutions have the necessary specialist knowledge for the early detection and detection of children with disabilities. Special schools can also serve as a training and resource center for mainstream schools. Finally, special schools or special units in inclusive schools could continue to provide the best education for the relatively small number of those children with disabilities who cannot be met in mainstream classes and schools. Investments in existing special schools should be geared towards their new and expanded role. This means that they offer the mainstream schools professional support in dealing with special educational needs. An important contribution for general schools that special school staff can make is to adapt curriculum content and methods to the individual needs of a child.

10. Countries that have no or few special schools, in general, are well advised to focus their efforts on developing inclusive schools and the specific service points they need to care for the vast majority of children and young people. Particularly recommended is the provision of teacher training, which has pedagogy for special needs as its content, as well as the establishment of sufficiently staffed and materially equipped resource centers to which schools can turn for support. In particular, experience in developing countries shows that the high cost of special schools means in practice that only a small minority of students, usually an urban elite, can benefit from them. As a result, the vast majority of students with special needs, especially in rural areas, are not cared for at all. It is estimated that in many developing countries less than 1% of children with special needs are included in existing forms of care. In addition, experience suggests that inclusive schools, which care for all children in a community, are very effective in attracting community support and finding new and innovative ways to use the limited resources that are available.

11. Educational planning Education should be the primary focus of governments all Direct people in all Regions of a country and under all economic conditions, both in public and private schools.

12. Given that relatively few children with disabilities had access to schooling in the past, particularly in developing countries, there are millions of adults with disabilities who do not even have basic education. Joint effort is therefore necessary to get people with disabilities in Adult education programs Teach reading, writing, arithmetic and basic skills.

13. It is particularly important to recognize that gender biases, combined with the difficulties posed by their disability, have often deprived women in two ways. Women and men should have the same influence and opportunity to benefit from them in designing educational programs. Special effort should be made that Women and girls with disabilities be encouraged to participate in educational programs.

14. This one Action framework is intended as a general guideline for planning projects in the context of pedagogy for special needs. Of course, it cannot take into account the full range of conditions that can be found in the various regions and countries of the world, so it must be adapted accordingly to local requirements and conditions. To be effective, it has to go through state, regional and local action planssupported by the political and general will, Education for everyone to achieve, to be supplemented.

Guidelines for activities at the national level

A. Politics and Organization

15. Inclusive education and community-based rehabilitation are mutually complementary and supportive approaches to care for people with special needs. Both approaches are based on the principles of inclusion, inclusion and participation. They represent proven and cost-effective approaches to delivering within a nationwide strategy that Education for everyone aims to promote equal access for people with special educational needs. All countries are invited to consider the following practices in relation to the policy and organization of their education systems.

16. Legislation should follow the principle of equality for children, adolescents and adults with disabilities in elementary, secondary and adult education, which should, as far as possible, be carried out under inclusive conditions.

17. Parallel and complementary legal measures should be taken in the areas of health, welfare, training and work to support education laws and make them fully effective.

18. School policy At all levels, from federal to district level, it should stipulate that a child with a disability should attend the neighborhood school, that is, the school they would attend were they not disabled. Exceptions to this rule should be considered on a case-by-case basis where it can be demonstrated that only teaching in a special school or facility can meet the needs of a specific child.

19. Integrating children with disabilities should be a indispensable part government plans to achieve education for all. Even in those exceptional cases where children are placed in special schools, their education need not be completely segregated. Partial attendance in mainstream schools should be encouraged. Necessary arrangements should be made to ensure the inclusion of young people and adults with special needs in secondary and higher education and in training programs. Particular attention must be paid to ensuring equal access for girls and women with disabilities.

20. Particular attention should be paid to the needs of children and adolescents severe or multiple disabilities be dedicated. They have the same rights as others in the community to achieve maximum independence as adults, and they should be instructed to the maximum extent possible with that aim.

21. Education policy should be on individual differences and be extremely considerate of situations. For example, the importance of sign language as a communication medium among deaf people should be recognized. Provision should be made to ensure that all deaf persons have access to education in their national sign language. As a result of the special communication needs of deaf and deaf-blind people, it may be that their education can be better carried out in special schools or special classes and units in mainstream schools.

22. Community rehabilitation should be developed as part of a global strategy to provide cost-effective support to the education and training of those with special needs. Community rehabilitation should be seen as a special approach within community development that aims at rehabilitation, equality and social inclusion for all persons with disabilities; it should be achieved through the collective efforts of people with disabilities themselves, their families and communities, and through appropriate education, and health, professional and welfare services.

23. Both political and financial agreements should promote and facilitate the development of inclusive schools. Obstacles that make it difficult to move from a special school to a mainstream school should be removed, one common administrative structure should be set up. The trend towards inclusion should be carefully monitored through the collection of statistical data. They show on the one hand how many pupils with disabilities have benefited from aids, specialist knowledge and materials that were intended for special needs, and on the other hand how many pupils with disabilities are enrolled in mainstream schools.

24. The cooperationbetween School authorities and those Authoritieswho are responsible for health, labor and social affairs should be strengthened at all levels in order to bring about consistency and complementarity. Planning and organization should take into account both the actual and potential roles that semi-public and non-governmental organizations can play.Special efforts must be made to encourage community support to address specific educational needs.

25. State authorities have the responsibilityto control the external funding of a special needs education and, by working with its international partners, to ensure that it is in line with government objectives and policies based on it Education for everyone aims. For their part, bilateral and multilateral aid agencies should take into account national policies on special needs education when planning and implementing programs in education and related fields.

26. Developing inclusive schools that cater to a wide range of students in both urban and rural areas requires: Articulating a clear and strong policy for inclusion along with adequate funding - effective public information to avoid prejudice to combat and to create informed, positive attitudes - a comprehensive program for orientation and personnel development - as well as the provision of necessary positions that offer support. Changes in all of the following and many other areas of school are necessary for the success of inclusive schools: curriculum, school organization, pedagogy, school values ​​and extracurricular activities.

27. Most of the changes required are not solely related to the inclusion of children with special educational needs. You are part of a larger one Pedagogy reformwhich is necessary to improve its quality and relevance and to promote higher learning performance in all students. The World Declaration "Education for All"stressed the need for a child-centered approach that aims to make schooling for all children successful. Adopting more flexible, adaptable systems that are able to better cater to the different needs of children is becoming both educational and inclusive The following guidelines focus on issues that should be considered when including children with special educational needs in inclusive schools.

28. Curricula should be adapted to the needs of the children, not the other way around. Schools should therefore include options in the curriculum that will suit children with different skills and interests.

29. Children with special needs should have additional explanatory information support received as part of the regular curriculum, not any other curriculum. The principle should be to provide all children with the same education, while offering help and support to those who need it.

30. Acquiring knowledge is not just a matter of formal and theoretical teaching. Educational content should be aimed at both high standards and the needs of individuals, with an emphasis on empowering individuals to fully participate in developments. Lessons should be used for personal experience of students as well as practical areas in order to motivate them better.

31. To keep track of each child's progress, they should Assessment process to be revised. Formal assessments should be integrated into the regular educational process in order to keep pupils and teachers up to date on the successful mastery of learning content or to identify difficulties and to support the children in coping with them.

32. For children with special educational needs there should be a Continuum of support that ranges from minimal help in the regular classroom to additional support programs in the school and beyond, where necessary, to the provision of assistance by specialized teachers and external support staff.

33. When necessary, appropriate and affordable technology should be used to increase success in the school curriculum and to support learning. Technical aids can be offered more economically and effectively if they are provided in each region from a central point that has the specialist knowledge to adapt technical aids to individual needs and to ensure their maintenance.

34. At the federal and state levels, skills should be built and research conducted to identify appropriate technical support systems to develop for pedagogy of special needs. States that have ratified the Florence Convention should be encouraged to use this tool to allow the free circulation of materials and equipment necessary for the needs of people with disabilities. At the same time, states that have not followed the agreement are invited to do so in order to promote the free circulation of services as well as educational and cultural goods.

35. The Local school administration, School principals can play an essential role in making schools more accessible to children with disabilities if given the authority and training to do so. They should be encouraged to develop more flexible forms of organization, regroup teaching materials, expand learning opportunities, mobilize child-to-child help, children who have difficulty providing support, and develop close relationships with parents and the community. Successful school management depends on the active and creative involvement of teachers and staff, and on developing effective collaboration and teamwork to meet children's needs.

36. School directors have a special responsibility to foster positive attitudes in the school community and to arrange effective collaboration between classroom teachers and support staff. Through counseling and consultation, the appropriate provision of support and the precise roles to be played by the various partners in the educational process should be agreed upon.

37. Each school should be a community that is collectively responsible for the success or failure of each student. The Responsibility for children with special needs should be carried out by the educational team rather than by the individual teacher. Parents and volunteers should actively participate in the work in the school. However, teachers play a key role as managers of the educational process by supporting children in and outside the classroom through the use of available resources.

Information and research

38. The dissemination of examples more successful and proven teaching practice could help improve teaching and learning. Information about relevant research results could also be valuable. The gathering of experience and the development of information centers at the federal level should be supported as well as the accessibility to information should be increased.

39. Special needs education should be integrated into research and development programs of research institutes and centers that develop curricula. Particular attention should be paid to this area Action research to focus attention on innovative teaching-learning strategies. Class teachers should actively participate in both actions and reflections for surveys. Pilot projects and in-depth studies should be carried out. They can help with decisions and point the way for future actions. Such trials and studies could be carried out on a collaborative basis between several countries.

C. The recruitment and training of educational staff

40. Appropriate preparation of all educational staff is a key factor in the development of inclusive schools. In addition, it is increasingly important to involve teachers with disabilities who can serve as role models for children with disabilities. The following measures should be taken.

41. Educational programs for teachers should provide their students, regardless of whether they are elementary or secondary, with a positive orientation towards disability and thus develop an understanding of what can be achieved in schools through the care available there. The knowledge and skills required for this are above all good teaching. They include assessing special needs, adapting curriculum content, using assistive technology, customizing teaching processes to suit a wider range of skills, etc. In teacher education practice, particular attention should be paid to all prepare to use their autonomy and apply their skills in adapting curricula and guidance. In this way, the needs of the pupils can be met as well as collaboration with specialists and parents.

42. The ability to respond to specific educational needs should be considered in assessing study and teaching qualifications.

43. As priority Written materials should be prepared and seminars organized for local administrations, inspectors, principals and senior teachers to develop their capacity for leadership positions in this area and to support and train less experienced teachers.

44. The greatest challenge is to all teachers Advanced training which take into account the often very different and difficult conditions under which work is carried out. Wherever possible, training should be developed through meetings with trainers at school level and supported through distance learning and other self-instructive techniques.

45. Normally, special needs education leading to special qualifications should be integrated into or preceded by mainstream teacher training and practice to ensure complementarity and mobility.

46. ​​The Training of special teachers needs to be reconsidered to enable them to work in different conditions and to play a key role in programs for special educational needs. A non-categorical approach, including all types of disability, should be developed as a general basis prior to specializing in one or more types of disabilities.

47. Universities have an essential advisory role in the process of developing special needs education, particularly in relation to research, evaluation, preparation of teacher educators and the design of training programs and materials. The network-oriented cooperation between universities and higher education institutions should be promoted in both developed and developing countries. Combining research and education in this way is of great importance. It is also essential to actively involve people with disabilities in research and training positions to ensure that their perspectives are fully taken into account.

48. A recurring problem in educational systems, even those that provide excellent educational opportunities for students with disabilities, is Lack of role models for such students. Students with special needs need to be able to interact with adults who are disabled and successful so that they can design their own lifestyle and get an idea of ​​realistic expectations. In addition, students with disabilities should be offered training and examples of self-determination and leadership in the area of ​​disability so that they can participate in shaping policies that will affect them later in life. Education systems should therefore endeavor to attract qualified teachers and other educational staff with disabilities. They should also try to involve successful local people with disabilities in the education of children with special needs.

D. External Support Systems

49. The provision of support is of particular importance to the success of inclusive education policies. In order for out-of-school support to be available for children with special needs at all levels, school authorities should consider the following.

50. Support in mainstream schools could be provided by both teacher training centers and field staff of special schools. The latter should increasingly be used as resource centers for mainstream schools that offer direct support for children with special educational needs. Both training centers and special schools can offer access to special equipment and materials as well as training in special methods that are not available in mainstream school classes.

51. Extracurricular support Additional staff from various facilities, departments and institutions such as counseling teachers, educational psychologists, language and occupational therapists, etc. should be coordinated at the local level. The combination of several schools has proven to be a beneficial strategy for mobilizing educational resources on the one hand and community involvement on the other. Such school collectives should be given the joint responsibility for meeting the special educational needs of schoolchildren in their region. They should be given the framework for the allocation of necessary resources, such arrangements should also include non-school performance. Experience even suggests that educational offerings could benefit from this if greater efforts were made to ensure optimal use of the available expertise and resources.

52. The inclusion of children and young people with special educational needs would be more effective and successful if the following target areas were given special consideration when developing educational plans: early intervention to improve the educational ability of all children, the education of girls and the transition from school to school Adult working life.

53. The success of an inclusive school depends largely on the early detection, assessment and stimulation of the very young child with special educational needs. Early intervention and educational programs for children up to six years of age should be developed and / or revised to promote physical, intellectual and social development and school readiness. Such programs have great economic value for the individual, the family and society in order to prevent the aggravation of obstructive conditions. Programs at this level should recognize the principle of inclusion and should be developed in a comprehensive way by linking pre-school and early childhood activities.

54. Many countries have adopted policies in favor of early childhood learning, either by supporting the development of kindergartens and day care centers, or by providing information to families and awareness-raising activities related to community services (health, maternal and child care), schools and local family or Organized women's associations.

Education of girls

55. Disabled girl are disadvantaged in two ways. Special efforts must be made to provide education and training to girls with disabilities. In addition to access to schools, girls with disabilities should have access to information and advice as well as contact with role models who can help them to make realistic wishes and preparations for their future role as adult women.

Preparation for adult life

56. Young people with special educational needs should be with Transition from school to professional life to be helped. Schools should support them to become economically active and give them the skills they need in everyday life. They should offer training in those skills that correspond to the social and communicative requirements and expectations of adult life. This requires suitable training techniques including concrete experience in real life situations outside of school.Curricula for students with special educational needs at higher levels should include specific transition programs. In addition, wherever possible, assistance should be provided for entry into higher education as well as subsequent vocational training that prepares them to function as independent, contributing members of their communities after leaving school. These activities should be carried out with the active involvement of career counselors, employment offices, trade unions, local authorities and other relevant bodies and organizations.

Adult and continuing education

57. Particular attention should be paid to persons with disabilities in the design and implementation of Adult and continuing education programs be given. You should have preference in accessing such programs. Specific courses should be designed to meet the needs and conditions of different groups of adults with disabilities.

F. Perspectives in the community

58. It is recognized that the goal of successful education of children with special educational needs is not solely the responsibility of ministries of education and schools. This goal requires family collaboration, community mobilization and voluntary organizations, as well as public support at large. The experiences of countries or areas that have observed progress in equality of educational opportunities for children and young people with disabilities suggest several useful steps.

59. The education of children with special educational needs is a task that must be shared by parents and professionals. A positive attitude towards parental contribution favors school and social inclusion. Parents need supportto be able to take on the role of the parent of a child with special needs. The role of families and parents could be expanded by providing necessary information in simple and clear language; Turning to information and education for parenting is a particularly important task in cultures where school has little tradition. Both parents and teachers may need support in working together as equal partners.

60. parents are the preferred partner in relation to the special educational needs of their child and, as far as possible, their wishes in relation to the choice of their child's educational path should be met.

61. A cooperative, supportive partnership should be developed between school board, teachers and parents, and parents should be seen as active partners in decision-making. Parents should be encouraged to participate in educational activities at school (where they can observe successful techniques and learn how to organize after-school activities) and at home, as well as observe and support their children's learning.

62. Governments should lead the way, both through political statements and through Legislation to enable parental partnerships for parental rights. The development of parent organizations should be encouraged and their representatives should be involved in the design and implementation of programs aimed at expanding the education of their children. Organizations of people with disabilities should also be consulted in the design and implementation of programs.

Involvement of communities

63. decentralization and planning at the local level are conducive to greater community involvement in the education and training of people with disabilities. Local authorities should encourage community participation by providing support to representative organizations and inviting them to participate in decision-making. To this end, mechanisms from local administrative authorities, school, health and development authorities, as well as community leaders and volunteer organizations should be mobilized and monitored. This should be done in geographic regions small enough to ensure meaningful participation in the church.

64. The Involving the community Should be sought to complement school activities, provide help with housework, and compensate for lack of family support. In this context, the role of neighbors in providing space should be mentioned, as well as the role of family associations, youth groups and movements, as well as the potential role of older people and other volunteers, including people with disabilities, in in-school and out-of-school programs become.

65. Whenever outside community rehabilitation activities are initiated, it is up to the community to decide whether the program should become part of the community's ongoing development programs. Various partners in the community, including organizations of people with disabilities and non-governmental organizations, should be encouraged to Responsibility for programs to take over. Federal and state government agencies should provide financial and other assistance where appropriate.

The role of voluntary organizations

66. Voluntary organizations and national non-governmental organizations have more freedom of action and can react more quickly to expressed needs. Therefore, they should be supported in developing new ideas and paving the way for innovative dissemination methods. They can take on the roles of inventors and catalysts and expand the range of programs available in the community.

67. Organizations of people with disabilitiesi.e. organizations in which they have a decisive influence should be invited to take an active role in identifying needs, setting priorities, managing services, assessing quality and advocating change.

68. Politicians at all levels, including the school level, should do theirs on a regular basis Commitment to inclusion express and promote positive attitudes towards those with special educational needs among children, teachers and the general public.

69. The Mass media can play a powerful role in promoting positive attitudes towards inclusion of people with disabilities in society by overcoming prejudice and misinformation and instilling more optimism and ingenuity about the capacities of people with disabilities. The media can also encourage positive attitudes among employers towards the attitudes of people with disabilities. They should be used to inform the public about new approaches to education, particularly those relating to special needs education in mainstream schools, by disseminating examples of successful teaching practice and attempts.

70. The development of inclusive schools as the most effective means of achieving education for all must be recognized as a national guiding policy, and it must be given a privileged place in national development plans. Only in this way can appropriate funds be implemented. Changes in policy and priorities cannot be effective until adequate calls for funds are met. Political engagement at the federal as well as the municipal level is needed to enforce additional funds on the one hand and to move existing ones on the other. While communities have a key role to play in developing inclusive schools, government encouragement and support are also essential to find effective and affordable solutions.

71. The Distribution of funds schools should take into account the differences in expenses required to provide adequate education for all children by considering their needs and conditions. It might be realistic to initially support schools that advocate inclusive education and start pilot projects in some regions to acquire the necessary expertise for expansion and generous generalization. In the widespread diffusion of inclusive education, the level of support and expertise will need to be adapted to the nature of demand.

72. Funding must also be allocated for assistance with the training of inclusion teachers, for the establishment of resource centers, and for special or support teachers. Appropriate technical aids to ensure the successful functioning of an inclusive education system must be provided. Inclusive approaches should therefore be linked to the development of support services at the central and middle level.

73. The human, institutional, logistical, material and financial resources various ministerial departments (education, health, social affairs, labor, youth, etc.), state and local authorities and other special institutions summarize, is an effective way to increase its impact. It will require effective management structures in order to combine an educational with a social approach for a pedagogy of special needs. The various services must be empowered to work together at both state and local level. Public authorities and related organizations must be allowed to join forces.

III. Guidelines for action at regional and international level

74. International cooperation between governmental and non-governmental, regional and supra-regional organizations can play a very important role in supporting the movement towards inclusive schools. Based on past experience in this area, international, intergovernmental and non-governmental as well as bilateral donor organizations could join forces to implement the following strategic approaches.

75. Technical assistance should target strategic areas of intervention with a multiplier effect, especially in developing countries. One of the main tasks of international cooperation is to initiate pilot projects with the aim of trying out new approaches and building capacities.

76. The organization of regional